Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 89, No. 7, July

Barriers to Immunization among Children of Migrant Workers from Myanmar Living in Tak Province, Thailand/Obstacles a L'immunisation Chez Les Enfants Des Travailleurs Immigres Du Myanmar Residant Dans la Province De Tak En Thailande/Obstaculos Para la Vacunacion De Los Hijos De Trabajadores Inmigrantes Procedentes De Myanmar En la Provincia De Tak, Tailandia
Problem An estimated 2.7 million children die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases. (1) Immunization is one of the most effective existing strategies for preventing illness in children and it is widely seen as a beneficial, low-cost investment....
Brazil Targets Drink Driving on the Road to Fewer Deaths: Despite a Longstanding Commitment to Improving Road Safety, Brazil's Numerous Initiatives Have Suffered from Weak Enforcement. Tough New Legislation Backed by Even Tougher Policing Promises a New Start
Jonas Licurgo Ferreira was drunk the night he crashed his car. The 41-year-old resident of Rio de Janeiro had been drinking heavily with a soldier friend who was messing around with a gun in the car when it happened. He hit a post. The gun went off,...
Cost-Effectiveness of Parenteral Artesunate for Treating Children with Severe Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa/Rentabilite De L'artesunate Parenteral Administre Chez Les Enfants Gravement Atteints De Paludisme En Afrique subsaharienne/Relacion Coste-Eficacia del Artesunato Para El Tratamiento De Ninos Con Malaria Grave En El Africa Subsahariana
Introduction Despite reported falling transmission in much of sub-Saharan Africa, (1-3) malaria remains a leading cause of inpatient admissions and mortality in paediatric wards. (4-6) The policy for first-line treatment of severe malaria is a critical...
Dengue Vaccine Roll-Out: Getting Ahead of the Game: Dengue Vaccines Are Currently Being Tested in Clinical Trials but Public Health Specialists Are Already Working on Delivery Strategies for a Rapid Roll-Out to the People Who Need Them Most
For Luiz Jacintho da Silva, director of the Dengue Vaccine Initiative, the spread of dengue is a matter of the gravest concern. "Over the past few decades the disease has spread dramatically," says da Silva, noting in particular the toll it has taken...
Effect of Deep Tube Well Use on Childhood Diarrhoea in Bangladesh/Effet Des Puits Tubulaires Profonds Sur la Diarrhee Infantile Au Bangladesh/Efecto De Los Pozos Profundos Entubados En la Diarrea Infantil En Bangladesh
Introduction Diarrhoeal diseases are the second leading cause of death in children aged under 5 years worldwide. (1) An estimated 2.5 million cases of diarrhoea occur annually in these children, with Asia and southern Africa accounting for more...
Effects of a Conditional Cash Transfer Programme on Child Nutrition in Brazil/Effets D'un Programme De Transfert D'argent Conditionnel Sur la Nutrition Des Enfants Au Bresil/ Efectos De Un Programa De Transferencia Condicional En Efectivo En la Nutricion Infantil En Brasil
Introduction Recently, conditional cash transfer programmes have sparked considerable interest. This social protection strategy has been used both to promote social development and on humanitarian grounds. (1) Within a span of 10 years conditional...
Expectations for the United Nations High-Level Meeting on Noncommunicable Diseases
The United Nations General Assembly's decision to convene a high-level meeting on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide in September 2011 is a major, timely opportunity to elevate chronic diseases onto the global stage...
Future Perfect? Improving Preparedness through the Experiences of the Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Pandemic
In April 2009, human infections caused by a previously unknown swine influenza A (H1N1) virus were first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Within days, spread of this virus in North America was evident and, within weeks, continued dissemination...
Health Is More Than Influenza
The repeated pandemic health scares caused by an avian H5N1 and a new A(H1N1) human influenza virus are part of the culture of fear. (1-3) Worst-case thinking replaced balanced risk assessment. Worst-case thinking is motivated by the belief that the...
Living Forwards, Understanding Backwards
It has been said that pandemics are lived forwards and understood backwards. The 2009 influenza pandemic is no exception. The identification of the new influenza virus strain in the United States of America coincided with many media reports describing...
Pandemic Influenza and Its Definitional Implications
In his thoughtful analysis, Doshi aptly describes the need for establishing greater definitional precision of "pandemic influenza" as the basis for future public health preparedness and response efforts. (1) Importantly, his assessment highlights a...
Planning for Uncertainty: A European Approach to Informing Responses to the Severity of Influenza Epidemics and Pandemics
The internationally accepted definition of a pandemic is straightforward and well known: "an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area, crossing international boundaries and usually affecting a large number of people". (1) However, as...
Potential Effect of the World Health Organization's 2011-2015 Global Leprosy Strategy on the Prevalence of Grade 2 Disability: A Trend analysis/Effet Potentiel De la Strategie Globale Contre la Lepre 2011-2015 De l'OMS Sur la Prevalence De L'invalidite De Categorie 2: Une Analyse De tendances/Efecto Potencial De la Estrategia Mundial Contra la
Introduction Among communicable diseases, leprosy remains a leading cause of peripheral neuropathy and disability in the world, despite extensive efforts to reduce the disease burden. (1) The success of multidrug therapy, introduced in 1981, encouraged...
Presumptive Diagnosis of Severe HIV Infection to Determine the Need for Antiretroviral Therapy in Children Less Than 18 Months of age/Diagnostic Presomptif D'une Infection Grave Par le VIH Pour Determiner le Besoin D'une Therapie Antiretrovirale Chez Les Enfants De Moins De 18 mois/Diagnostico Provisional De la Infeccion Grave Por El VIH Para Determinar la Necesidad del Tratamiento
Introduction Important strides have been made in recent years in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Donor investment in PMTCT programmes has been substantial and governments have made...
Projections of Global Health Outcomes from 2005 to 2060 Using the International Futures Integrated Forecasting model/Projections De Resultats En Matiere De Sante Mondiale De 2005 a 2060 En Utilisant le Modele Previsionnel Integre International Futures/Proyecciones De Los Resultados Globales De Sanidad del 2005 Al 2060 Utilizando El Modelo Integrado De Prediccion De International Futures
Introduction Long-term forecasts of mortality and disease burden are essential for setting current and future health system priorities, yet few forecasts cover a wide range of nations over a long span of time. Even fewer situate changes into an...
The Classical Definition of a Pandemic Is Not Elusive
Doshi argues cogently that the definition of pandemic influenza in 2009 was elusive but does not refer to the classical epidemiological definition of a pandemic. (1) A pandemic is defined as "an epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a very wide area,...
The Elusive Definition of Pandemic influenza/L'insaisissable Definition De la Grippe pandemique/La Evasiva Definicion De la Gripe Pandemica
Introduction In 2009, governments throughout the world mounted large and costly responses to the H1N1 influenza outbreak. These efforts were largely justified on the premise that H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza required different management,...