Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 82, No. 6, June

Antenatal Syphilis Control: People, Programmes, Policies and Politics
Screening pregnant women for syphilis has long been a recommended intervention for reproductive health-care programmes. The burden of disease in both infected adults and their children is well described. Screening and treating women found to be serologically...
Brazilian Genomics Breakthrough Offers Hope for Leptospirosis Control
A team of Brazilian researchers has sequenced the genome of a bacterium which causes leptospirosis, a disease which infects over 100 000 people and causes 1000 deaths worldwide every year. The breakthrough has been hailed as a first step towards creating...
Cardiovascular Disease-A Global Health Time Bomb
Cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes--usually associated with wealthy, developed countries--have become far more prevalent in poorer, less developed countries than previously thought, according to a new report published...
Changing History-Closing the Gap in AIDS Treatment and Prevention
The global epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) is the greatest threat to human health and development since the bubonic plague and the advent of tobacco consumption. It threatens not only to continue...
Controlling Congenital Syphilis in the Era of HIV/AIDS
Syphilis is a complex disease with potentially serious outcomes for pregnant women and their infants. The prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women and in children is difficult to evaluate: diagnostic tests have limitations; diagnosis can be complex,...
Diagnostic Tools for Preventing and Managing Maternal and Congenital Syphilis: An Overview
Introduction Important advances in the diagnosis and treatment of syphilis have been made since the causative organism, Treponema pallidum, was discovered in 1905 by Schaudinn and Hoffmann. Despite these achievements, syphilis remains a major public...
Economic and Programmatic Aspects of Congenital Syphilis Prevention
Introduction In 2001, an estimated 720 000 infants, almost all in developing countries, were born with HIV (1) and few will survive until their tenth birthday. This high mortality in children who will never survive and contribute to society has...
Effectiveness of Condoms in Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections
Introduction In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Agency for International Development...
Genital Herpes and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Double Trouble
Introduction Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is chronic, widespread, and infectious during both its symptomatic and asymptomatic periods. This infection is a significant factor for increased risk...
HIV Treatment Will Boost Prevention and Strengthen Health Systems, Says the World Health Report 2004
By using HIV treatment programmes to bolster existing prevention efforts and improve overall health systems in the developing world, the international community has a unique opportunity to change the course of history, says The worM health report 2004--changing...
Maternal and Congenital Syphilis Programmes: Case Studies in Bolivia, Kenya and South Africa
Introduction Until 1916, maternal and congenital syphilis screening programmes were closely linked to those for the control of syphilis in the general population. Over the past 80 years, throughout the developed world, syphilis control programmes...
Maternal Syphilis: Pathophysiology and Treatment
Efforts to prevent transmission of syphilis from mother to child must be based on the best available understanding of the patho-physiology of congenital syphilis and vertical transmission. Although there is extensive literature that is helpful in this...
New International Convention Allows Use of DDT for Malaria Control
Malaria-endemic countries can continue using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to help control malaria due to an exemption clause in a convention banning the controversial substance. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants which...
Prevention of Congenital Syphilis-Time for Action
While congenital syphilis is largely under control in affluent parts of the world, syphilis during pregnancy continues to be a tragic and substantial problem in many developing countries. Estimates indicate that around a million pregnancies are affected...
Rwandan Genocide Survivors in Need of HIV Treatment
Thousands of women who were sexually assaulted and infected with HIV during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda do not have access to treatment, said the Survivors' Fund (SURF), a UK-based non-profit organization which launched a campaign on 20 April calling...
SARS Outbreak over, but Concerns for Lab Safety Remain
The recent outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China which infected nine people and killed one of them is now over said WHO on 19 May. The outbreak, which began in April at a laboratory in Beijing, has raised questions about storing...
The Natural History of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections in Adults in Africa: A Literature Review
Introduction In 2002, 29.4 million people in Africa were estimated to be living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS); 3.5 million were newly infected; and about 2.5 million died from AIDS (1). There are...
The Prevention and Management of Congenital Syphilis: An Overview and Recommendations
Introduction Congenital syphilis should by now be a medical curiosity. Its continued occurrence is a symbol of the failure of basic systems of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Antenatal screening for syphilis...
WHO's HIV/AIDS Strategy under the Spotlight: Dr Jim Yong Kim, Director of WHO's HIV/AIDS Department, Talks to the Bulletin about "3 by 5"-The Global Strategy Which Aims to Provide Three Million People in Developing Countries with Antiretroviral Treatment by 2005
About "3 by 5": Since its introduction in 1996, highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has enabled people with HIV/AIDS in industrialized countries to live healthier, longer lives and to continue to contribute to the social and economic well-being...
World Health Assembly Adopts Landmark Strategies on Diet and Physical Activity, and Reproductive Health
The 57th World Health Assembly, which met 17-22 May 2004, has adopted landmark global strategies on diet and physical activity, reproductive health and key resolutions on HIV/ AIDS and road safety. The WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity...