American Criminal Law Review

American Criminal Law Review is a magazine covering criminal law in the U.S. It is published quarterly by Georgetown University Law Center.Subjects for American Criminal Law Review include: Police, Penology, and Penal Institutions; Law.

Articles from Vol. 40, No. 2, Spring

Antitrust Violations
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Conspiracy B. Restraint of Trade C. Interstate Nexus D. Intent III. DEFENSES A. Withdrawal from Conspiracy B. Statute of Limitations C. Double Jeopardy D. Single...
Computer Crimes
I. INTRODUCTION A. Defining Computer Crime B. Types of Computer-Related Offenses II. FEDERAL APPROACHES A. Federal Criminal Code 1. National Information Infrastructure Protection Act of 1996 a. Offenses Under the Statute ...
Corporate Crime after 2000: A New Law Enforcement Challenge or Deja Vu?
INTRODUCTION White collar crime is in vogue. Although there are investigations and prosecutions throughout the country at any given time in which individuals and businesses are charged with corporate wrongdoing, 2002 and 2003 will likely be high-water...
Corporate Criminal Liability
I. INTRODUCTION II. THE LAW OF CORPORATE CRIMINAL LIABILITY A. Corporations are Only Liable for the Acts of Employees if the Employees are Acting Within the Scope and Nature of Their Employment B. A Corporation Will Not be...
Editor's Note
The American Criminal Law Review's annual Survey of White Collar Crime provides practitioners, prosecutors, students, and academics with a comprehensive guide to the ever-evolving field of white collar crime. This issue is written and edited entirely...
Employment-Related Crimes
I. INTRODUCTION II. WORKER SAFETY A. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1. Employer's Willful Violation of Standard Causing Death. a. Elements of the Offense i. Employer ii. Willful Violation ...
Environmental Crimes
I. INTRODUCTION II. GENERAL ISSUES A. Liability 1. Corporate Liability and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior 2. Individual Liability and the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine B. Common Defenses ...
False Claims
I. INTRODUCTION A. 18 U.S.C. [section] 287 B. 31 U.S.C. [subsection] 3729-3733 II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Presentation of a Claim B. False, Fictitious, or Fraudulent Claims C. Knowledge D. Materiality III. DEFENSES ...
False Statements
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Statements or Concealments B. Falsity C. Materiality D. Intent E. Jurisdiction III. DEFENSES A. Exculpatory "No" B. Ambiguity C. Double Jeopardy D. Other Defenses ...
Federal Criminal Conflict of Interest
I. INTRODUCTION II. BRIBERY AND ILLEGAL GRATUITY A. Elements of the Bribery and Illegal Gratuity Offenses 1. Thing of Value 2. Public Official 3. Official Act 4. Intent a. Bribery b. Illegal Gratuity ...
Federal Criminal Conspiracy
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE A. Agreement B. Illegal Goal C. Knowledge, Intent, and Participation D. Overt Act III. DEFENSES A. Statute of Limitations B. Variance C. Multiplicitous Indictment D. Insufficient...
Federal Food and Drug Act Violations
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Statutory Elements 1. Food, Drug, Cosmetic, or Device 2. Adulterated or Misbranded 3. Delivery or Transportation in Interstate Commerce B. Misdemeanor Violations and the "Responsible...
Financial Institutions Fraud
I. INTRODUCTION II. BANK FRAUD STATUTE A. Purpose and Scope B. Elements of the Offense 1. Knowledge 2. Executes or Attempts to Execute 3. Scheme or Artifice 4. To Defraud or Obtain Monies By False or Fraudulent ...
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
I. INTRODUCTION II. ACCOUNTING PROVISIONS A. Covered Parties B. Elements of the Accounting Provisions 1. Record-keeping 2. Internal Controls C. Criminal Liability III. ANTI-BRIBERY PROVISIONS A. Covered Persons ...
Health Care Fraud
I. INTRODUCTION II. STATUTES ADDRESSING MEDICARE AND MEDICAID FRAUD A. Medicaid False Claims Statute 1. Elements of the Offense a. Statement of Material Fact b. False Representation c. Knowing and Willful ...
Intellectual Property Crimes
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CRIMES I. INTRODUCTION II. THEFT OF TRADE SECRETS A. Economic Espionage Act of 1996 1. Definition of Trade Secret 2. Elements of the Criminal Offenses a. Economic Espionage b. Theft of Trade...
Mail and Wire Fraud
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Scheme to Defraud 1. Traditional Frauds 2. Fraud Involving Intangible Rights B. Intent to Defraud C. Mailing in Furtherance of a Scheme to Defraud 1. Causing the Mails to...
Money Laundering
I. INTRODUCTION II. OVERVIEW OF THE STATUTE A. Section 1956 1. Transaction Money Laundering 2. Transportation Money Laundering 3. Sting Operations B. Section 1957 III. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSES A. Knowledge Requirement ...
Obstruction of Justice
I. INTRODUCTION II. OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE: THE OMNIBUS PROVISION A. Scope of [section] 1503 B. Elements of a [section] 1503 Offense 1. Pending Judicial Proceedings 2. Knowledge of Pending Proceeding 3. Acting Corruptly with...
Perjury
I. INTRODUCTION A. False Testimony Generally B. False Testimony to Court or Grand Jury C. Subornation of Perjury II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Oath B. Scope 1. Section 1621: Competent Tribunal, Officer, or Person ...
Procedural Issues
I. INTRODUCTION II. INITIATION OF PROSECUTION A. The Grand Jury 1. Standard of Review for Grand Jury Error 2. Prosecutorial Misconduct B. Discovery 1. Rule 16 2. Jencks Act 3. Brady v. Maryland ...
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Two or More Predicate Acts of Racketeering Activity B. Pattern C. Enterprise 1. Types of Enterprises 2. Proving the Enterprise 3. Person-Enterprise Rule D....
Securities Fraud
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Substantive Fraud 1. Material Misrepresentations and Omissions a. Misstatements and Omissions b. Materiality c. Intent i. Scienter ii....
Tax Violations
I. INTRODUCTION II. CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS UNDER I.R.C. [subsection] 7201, 7202, 7203, 7206, AND 7212(A) A. Policies and Procedures of IRS Investigations 1. Purposes of IRS Investigations 2. Policies 3. Constitutional...