The American Midland Naturalist

Articles from Vol. 153, No. 2, April

Abundance of Green Tree Frogs and Insects in Artificial Canopy Gaps in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest
ABSTRACT.-We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat....
Read preview Overview
Active Parental Care in a Freshwater Amphipod (Crustacea: Gammarus Pseudolimnaeus): Effects of Environmental Factors
ABSTRACT.-Female amphipods carry their eggs and offspring in a ventral brood pouch. Previous research has demonstrated that females of species inhabiting harsh environmental conditions expend additional energy in active parental care such as ventilating...
Read preview Overview
Annual Variation in Fish Assemblages of Watersheds with Stable and Changing Land Use
ABSTRACT.-Freshwater fish assemblages are sensitive to changes in land use, but it is unclear how rapidly assemblages respond to such change or how closely they track physical changes in the stream environment. We monitored fish assemblages at the outflow...
Read preview Overview
Aspects of the Life History of the Texas Map Turtle (Graptemys Versa)
ABSTRACT.-The Texas map turtle (Graptemys versa) is endemic to the Colorado River drainage in southcentral Texas. A study of its life history was undertaken using data collected in 1998-2000 from a population in the South Llano River, southernmost tributary...
Read preview Overview
Avoiding Mass Extinction: Basic and Applied Challenges
ABSTRACT.-Preserving the earth's diversity of species requires that conservation biology turn much of its attention to reconciliation ecology, which is the science of sharing our habitats with wild things. Although many reconciliation projects are already...
Read preview Overview
Comparative Effectiveness of Three Techniques for Salamander and Gastropod Land Surveys
ABSTRACT.-We compared the effectiveness and efficiency of three terrestrial salamander and gastropod trapping techniques: pitfall traps, ground searches and cover boards. The study was conducted on 18 stands with three management histories in the Umpqua...
Read preview Overview
Demographics and Condition of Coyotes in Illinois
ABSTRACT.-The rapid growth of coyote (Canis latrans) populations in Illinois since 1980 prompted a need for current demographic data to be used in population models for management. From 1994 to 1997 we examined 977 coyotes harvested by hunters and trappers...
Read preview Overview
Descriptive Ecology of a Turtle Assemblage in an Urban Landscape
ABSTRACT.-We studied turtle populations inhabiting a canal and a lake (both man-made) within a heavily disturbed, urban setting. Six aquatic and semi-aquatic turtle species were collected in both habitats: spiny softshell turtle (Apolone spinifera),...
Read preview Overview
Development and Assessment of a Sampling Design for Mussel Assemblages in Large Streams
ABSTRACT.-Freshwater mussel beds of the lower 68 km of the Cache River, Arkansas, were delineated, sampled using dive techniques and a stratified random sampling methodology and analyzed for density and species richness. A total of 38 mussel beds were...
Read preview Overview
Diet of Southern Toads (Bufo Terrestris) in Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda) Stands Subject to Coarse Woody Debris Manipulations
ABSTRACT.-In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations...
Read preview Overview
Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow
Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow, L. Ginzburg and M. Colyvan, Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2004.Population ecology comprises a small set of standard models and most new models are just minor variations on long-held ideas....
Read preview Overview
Epicotyl Dormancy in Viburnum Acerifolium (Caprifoliaceae)
ABSTRACT.-Seeds (true seed plus endocarp) of Viburnum arerifolium have underdeveloped linear embryos and deep simple epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy. Seeds mature and are dispersed in autumn, and radicles and epicotyls emerge the following autumn...
Read preview Overview
Factors Limiting Fruit Production in Asclepias Meadii in Northeastern Kansas
ABSTRACT.-Low levels of fruit production are thought to threaten the persistence of Asclepias meadii (Mead's milkweed) populations. We evaluated four hypotheses explaining the low fruit production in one population (herbivory, pollen limitation, resource...
Read preview Overview
Foraging Area Size and Habitat Use by Red Bats (Lasiurus Borealis) in an Intensively Managed Pine Landscape in Mississippi
ABSTRACT.-Forest managers are increasingly expected to incorporate biodiversity objectives within forest landscapes devoted to timber production. However, reliable data on which to base management recommendations for bats within these systems are extremely...
Read preview Overview
Home Range and Habitat Use of Coyotes in an Area of Native Prairie, Farmland and CRP Fields
ABSTRACT.-From 1999 to 2001 we monitored 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) in northwestern Texas to determine their home ranges and habitat use in a landscape interspersed with native prairie, farmland and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields. Annual home...
Read preview Overview
Influence of Age, Sex and Time of Year on Diet of the Bobcat (Lynx Rufus) in Pennsylvania
ABSTRACT.-Diet of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is poorly known. Age, sex and time of year are thought to influence bobcat prey selection, but accounts vary. We examined the contents of 85 bobcat stomachs taken...
Read preview Overview
Juvenile Dispersal of Franklin's Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus Franklinii) from a Prairie "Island"
ABSTRACT.-Franklin's ground squirrel (Spermophilus franklinii) is declining in the eastern portion of its range, and this decline is often attributed to habitat fragmentation. However, the ability of S. franklinii to disperse across an agricultural landscape...
Read preview Overview
Migratory Strategy and Seasonal Patterns of Bird Diversity in Relation to Forest Habitat
ABSTRACT.-Aspen stands and riparian areas are important to breeding birds in the southwestern U.S. because they provide resources such as food and shelter. We investigated how this importance varies throughout the year for both resident and migratory...
Read preview Overview
On the Advantages of Putative Cannibalism in American Toad Tadpoles (Bufo A. Americanus): Is It Active or Passive and Why?
ABSTRACT.-We performed two experiments to address the questions of whether toad tadpoles (Bufo a. americanus): (1) gain an advantage from consuming conspecifics and (2) engage in active cannibalism as opposed to scavenging. Our results show that tadpoles...
Read preview Overview
Population Patterns of Copperbelly Water Snakes (Nerodia Erythrogaster Neglecta) in a Riparian Corridor Impacted by Mining and Reclamation
ABSTRACT.-Habitat loss has been identified as a principle reason for decline of many water snakes, and surface mining for coal could potentially put Copperbelly Water Snakes (Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta) at risk due to the severity of land cover change...
Read preview Overview
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Insect Emergence from a Southern Maine Salt Marsh
ABSTRACT.-Adult insects were collected using emergence traps from salt water pools, brackish water pools and vegetated marsh in the Little River Estuary, Wells, Maine, USA. Samples were continuously taken once every week from June through October of...
Read preview Overview
Spatial and Temporal Segregation of Juvenile and Mature Garlic Mustard Plants (Alliaria Petiolata) in a Central Pennsylvania Woodland
ABSTRACT.-Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is an invasive, spring-germinating, obligately biennial plant. In a central Pennsylvania forest, two distinctive plant patch types exist simultaneously: patches with mixed juveniles and adults and patches...
Read preview Overview
Stream Salamander Species Richness and Abundance in Relation to Environmental Factors in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia
ABSTRACT.-Stream salamanders are sensitive to acid mine drainage and may be sensitive to acidification and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) of a watershed. Streams in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, are subject to episodic acidification from...
Read preview Overview
Survival and Growth of Northern Bobwhite Chicks in Western Oklahoma
ABSTRACT.-Knowledge of chick ecology is essential for understanding and managing populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). We report on chick survival and growth in western Oklahoma during 1997-2002. We used Cox proportional hazard models...
Read preview Overview
The Effect of Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Malacasoma Americanum) Infestation on Fall Webworm (Hyphantria Cunea) Selection of Black Cherry (Prunus Serotina) as a Host Tree
ABSTRACT.-This study determined whether the presence of Eastern tent caterpillars on black cherry affects selection of the same tree by fall webworms in the same season. Five study sites were selected, each containing 30 to 50 black cherry trees, which...
Read preview Overview
Thermal Environment of Overwintering Ornate Box Turtles, Terrapene Ornata Ornata, in Iowa
ABSTRACT.-The carapace temperatures of ornate box turtles ( Terrapene ornata ornata) were monitored by affixing temperature dataloggers during two winters, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004. The dataloggers recorded temperature every 3 h to the nearest 0.5 C....
Read preview Overview
Woody Plant Encroachment and Removal in Mesic Grassland: Production and Composition Responses of Herbaceous Vegetation
ABSTRACT.-The clonal shrub Cornus drummondii is rapidly displacing mesic grassland in the central U.S. due to fire suppression and changes in land use. Once established, this shrub is not readily eliminated by the return of frequent fire, leading to...
Read preview Overview