Joint Force Quarterly

Articles from No. 35, Summer

A Word from the Chairman
One of my three agenda items as Chairman is military transformation, an imperative which is obviously gaining acceptance across the defense community. It is difficult to find an argument for standing still rather than developing new capabilities. Yet...
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Center of Gravity: Recommendations for Joint Doctrine
Advanced by Carl von Clausewitz, the concept of center of gravity is a popular strategic theory. Military transformation assigns a dominant role in doctrine to this concept despite its roots in the industrial age. Yet after more than two decades of...
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Center of Gravity: What Clausewitz Really Meant
The Armed Forces have come a long way in understanding centers of gravity and critical vulnerabilities. The former are equated to strength; the latter to weakness. As stated in The Joint Staff Officer's Guide, multiple centers of gravity may exist...
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Centralized Control/ Decentralized Execution in the Era of Forward Reach
The phenomenon of political and military leaders reaching forward into the realm of tactical operations has existed since Thucydides. It differs today because of technology, doctrine, and the current operational environment. Enduring Freedom demonstrated...
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Charting New Seas: Navy-Coast Guard Cooperation
The Navy and Coast Guard have a tradition of collaboration that goes back more than two centuries to their origins as sea services. Faced with an unprecedented threat after 9/11, they have made major strides in force recapitalization and transformation....
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Disengaging from Consequence Management
Almost twenty years ago, Caspar Weinberger defined the uses of military power in remarks made before a luncheon meeting at the National Press Club. The Secretary of Defense outlined six conditions to be met before committing troops overseas. They required...
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General Wallace Martin Greene, Jr. (1907-2003) Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps
VITA Born in Waterbury, Vermont; attended University of Vermont (1925-26); graduated from Naval Academy (1930); basic school, Philadelphia (1931); Marine barracks, Portsmouth (1931-32); sea school, San Diego (1932); USS Tennessee (1932-34); Pensacola,...
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Ground Radar Surveillance and Targeting
Developing the capability to quickly defeat an enemy on land, with fewer and more agile forces, is a significant challenge for the military. Desert Storm, Allied Force, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom involved severely punishing or defeating enemy...
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Information Operations and Millennium Challenge
Millennium Challenge, a joint exercise hosted by U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) in summet 2002, examined how far the Armed Forces could go in implementing Joint Vision 2020 and executing rapid decisive operations within this decade. One goal was...
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Interpreting the Legacy of Clausewitz
When Clausewitz wrote his famous opus, On War, little did he realize that a new industry had been born. Interpreting, reinterpreting, and artfully refining--not to mention plagiarizing--his ideas on war has been a minor but profitable cottage industry...
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Linking Conventional and Special Operations Forces
The Armed Forces have consistently demonstrated their skill in conducting joint operations. However, their capability exists almost exclusively on the operational level. To cope with nonstate enemies in the global war on terrorism, jointness must extend...
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Operational Command and Control in the Information Age
A major tenet of command and control is centralized direction and decentralized execution. But there has been steady movement in the last decade toward increased centralization on all levels. This trend should be arrested and the German-style task-oriented...
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Revisiting the Korean: Tree-Trimming Incident
In August 1976, two Americans were killed while supervising a work party at Panmunjom. The incident involved a detachment of U.S. soldiers who were trimming a poplar tree in the joint security area to improve visibility between checkpoints when North...
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Stepping outside the Reality Box
A system resembles a chain in that it is only as strong as its weakest link. Consider the example of defense transportation. Regardless of the capacity of aircraft and ships to carry military forces, system throughput will be limited if ports cannot...
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Systems Integration and the New American Way of War
There is a new American way of war. As seen in Afghanistan and Iraq it involves winning with smaller, more agile forces, where jointness and networking combine to produce large-scale gains in warfighting. Using this experience to transform the defense...
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The DOD Role in Homeland Security
Many experts warned prior to September 11, 2001, that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) would exploit weaknesses in the defense of America. A report by the Commission on National Security/21st Century sounded one such alarm: "The...
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The Evolution of Special Operations Joint Fires
A familiar complaint about Special Operations Forces (SOF) is that they are not integrated with conventional forces. Moreover, they are suspected of regarding themselves as strategic assets. However, SOF leaders recognize that they support other forces--land,...
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The Origins of Effects-Based Operations
Effects-based operations are defined by U.S. Joint Forces Command as "a set of actions planned, executed, and assessed with a systems perspective that considers the effects needed to achieve policy aims via the integrated application of various instruments...
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The Other Gulf War: British Intervention in Iraq, 1941
Iraqi Freedom offers not only a reprise of unfinished business from the Persian Gulf War, it is the third invasion of Iraq by Great Britain since independence in 1932. During World War II, Winston Churchill ordered his commander in chief, Middle East,...
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Transforming Joint Warfighting Capabilities
The global war on terrorism has validated the need for accelerating military transformation. The national security strategy directed the process to examine how enemies may fight, rather than where and when, reaffirming a shift from threat-based to...
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Trends in Future Warfare
The United States has engaged in several conflicts since the Cold War. It built a coalition to drive Iraq out of Kuwait, conducted an air campaign against Serbia with its NATO allies to halt ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, and defeated the Taliban in Afghanistan...
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U.S. Strategic Command: Meeting Global Challenges
The Nation has faced unprecedented threats over its history that called for a bold strategy. Consider the following statement in the inaugural address of Harry Truman: "Events have brought our American democracy to new influence and new responsibilities....
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