Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 43, No. 1, Spring

Anesthesia Alarms in Context: An Observational Study
This paper surveys current work on the design of alarms for anesthesia environments and notes some of the problems arising from the need to interpret alarms in context. Anesthetists' responses to audible alarms in the operating room were observed across...
Auditory Distraction and Short-Term Memory: Phenomena
Irrelevant sound tends to break through selective attention and impair cognitive performance. This observation has been brought under systematic scrutiny by laboratory studies measuring interference with memory performance during exposure to irrelevant...
Does Stress Training Generalize to Novel Settings?
Many high-stress task environments are complex and dynamic, and it is often difficult during training to anticipate the exact conditions that may be encountered in these settings. We conducted an empirical study to examine whether the positive effects...
Effects of Computer Monitor Viewing Angle and Related Factors on Strain, Performance, and Preference Outcomes
A model of visual and musculoskeletal strain associated with computer monitor placement was developed. The main premise of which is that monitor placement decisions must take into consideration development of both visual and musculoskeletal strains....
Effects of Hearing Protectors on Auditory Localization in Azimuth and Elevation
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of two types of hearing protectors on auditory localization performance. Six listeners localized a 750-ms broadband noise from loudspeakers ranging in azimuth from -180[degrees] to + 180[degrees]...
Effects of Image Scale and System Time Delay on Simulator Sickness within Head-Coupled Virtual Environments
Novel patterns of visual-vestibular intersensory stimulation often result in symptoms of simulator sickness, raising health and safety concerns regarding virtual environment exposure. Two experiments investigated the effect of conflicting visual-vestibular...
Eye Activity Correlates of Workload during a Visuospatial Memory Task
Changes in six measures of eye activity were assessed as a function of task workload in a target identification memory task. Eleven participants completed four 2-hr blocks of a mock anti-air-warfare task, in which they were required to examine and...
Minimum and Comfortable Driving Headways: Reality versus Perception
A field study was conducted to evaluate drivers' actual headways in car-following situations, their relationship to the drivers' brake reaction times, and their relationship to the drivers' ability to estimate those headways using different metrics....
Motor Vehicle Crash Involvement and Moving Violations: Convergence of Self-Report and Archival Data
In the crash involvement literature, it is generally assumed that archival and other "objective" criterion data are superior to self-reports of crash involvement. Using 394 participants (mean age = 36.23 years), the present study assessed the convergence...
Peripheral Visual Feedback: A Powerful Means of Supporting Effective Attention Allocation in Event-Driven, Data-Rich Environments
Breakdowns in human-automation coordination in data-rich, event-driven domains such as aviation can be explained in part by a mismatch between the high degree of autonomy yet low observability of modern technology. To some extent, the latter is the...
Spatial Representations of Virtual Mazes: The Role of Visual Fidelity and Individual Differences
Twenty-four people learned three versions of a room-sized maze: a wire-frame desktop virtual environment (VE), a normal surface-rendered desktop VE, and a real-world maze. Differences among the mental representations formed from each environment were...
The Use of 2D and 3D Displays for Shape-Understanding versus Relative-Position Tasks
Research on when and how to use three-dimensional (3D) perspective views on flat screens for operational tasks such as air traffic control is complex. We propose a functional distinction between tasks: those that require shape understanding versus...
Visual Context and the Control of Movements through Video Display
The aim of this experiment was to test the influence of target context on adaptation to scale perturbations introduced by a video display. Participants performed pointing movements without direct vision of their moving hand, although they could see...