Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 37, No. 2, June

Automatic versus User-Controlled Methods of Briefly Interrupting Telephone Calls
INTRODUCTION Some future telephone services will require that ongoing telephone calls be interrupted briefly so that one of the parties can receive data transmitted over the voice path. A service like this is called Caller ID on Call Waiting (CIDCW)....
Effect of Synthetic Voice Intelligibility on Speech Comprehension
INTRODUCTION Computerized voice output devices offer the potential for a number of intriguing applications. These applications include sensory aids for the visually impaired, feedback delivery systems for computer-assisted instruction, warning systems...
Effects of a Laser-Induced Temporary Scotoma on Target Acquisition Performance
Lasers commonly used in industry and the military are increasingly being recognized as possible hazards to vision and visually guided tasks. This study examined the effects of laser-induced visual loss on target acquisition performance. An argon laser...
Evaluation of Alternative Media Used with a Groupware Editor in a Simulated Telecommunications Environment
Writing efficiency using a groupware editor was evaluated in six configurations by factorially combining three communication media (audio only, audio plus video, and face-to-face) each with and without groupware editing in a within-subjects design....
Increasing the Usability of Interactive Voice Response Systems: Research and Guidelines for Phone-Based Interfaces
Thousands of applications -- from airline reservations to zoo schedule -- use phone-based interfaces to provide information to callers and to request input. The dramatic increase in the number of these applications has led to wide variability in the...
Information-Processing Slope Scores Can Be Reliable!
INTRODUCTION A number of cognitive tasks that increasingly are being used for selection or performance assessment characterize performance in terms of the relation between average correct reaction time (CRT) and levels of the independent variable. These...
Quantification of Wrist Motions during Scanning
A laboratory study was performed to help assess the risk of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) associated with the use of scanners in the grocery store environment. In this study experienced and inexperienced cashiers scanned a set of 12 standard...
Rear Light Arrangements for Cars Equipped with a Center High-Mounted Stop Lamp
INTRODUCTION It is well known that visual perception plays a key role in the driver-vehicle-road system (e.g., Cummings, 1964). Information needed by a driver following another car is primarily provided by the rear of the lead vehicle. Errors in detecting...
Relative Effects of Age and Compromised Vision in Driving Performance
INTRODUCTION Impairments of visual, perceptual, and cognitive functions have been shown to occur with age (Baltes, Cornelius, Spiro, Nesselroade, and Willis, 1980), and higher-order perceptual/cognitive decline has been suggested to be a contributing...
Self-Selected Manual Lifting Technique: Functional Consequences of the Interjoint Coordination
The pattern of movement self-selected by 39 subjects to lift light loads from 9 cm above the ground is described in kinematic and electromyographic terms. Hamstring length changes were estimated from hip and knee angular kinematics. Subjects adopted...
Social and Cognitive Processes in Interpersonal Communication: Implications for Advanced Telecommunications Technologies
Interactive multimedia conferencing systems, in which two or more remotely located people can work on cooperative tasks through shared audio, video, and data, appear to be the wave of the future. However, because of great advances in the underlying...
Spatial and Spectral Release from Masking in Three-Dimensional Auditory Displays
The extent to which simultaneous sounds in three-dimensional (3D) auditory displays mask one another was examined as a function of their spectral proximity and spatial separation. A tonal signal of either 0.5 or 4 kHz was presented at 0 deg azimuth...
Technology Usability Issues in a State Government Voice Mail Evaluation Survey
This paper summarizes results of a user evaluation survey of computer-based telephone messaging ("voice mail") technologies. A mail survey of the population of voice mail users in state government agencies approximately 3000 users) yielded 1072 user...
Telepresence in Videocommunications: A Study on Stereoscopy and Individual Eye Contact
We conducted two experiments to investigate how stereoscopy and technologies that allow individual eye contact affect the impression of telepresence in videoconferencing. Telepresence is defined as the degree to which participants of a telemeeting...
The Out-of-the-Loop Performance Problem and Level of Control in Automation
INTRODUCTION The out-of-the-loop performance problem has been widely documented as a potential negative consequence of automation (Billings, 1991; Moray, 1986; Wickens, 1992; Wiener and Curry, 1980). System operators working with automation have been...
Using Natural Language Conventions in the User Interface Design of Automatic Speech Recognition Systems
Four experiments were performed to examine how natural language conventions might be used to improve the user interface for systems using automatic speech recognition (ASR). Two new technological developments offered us this opportunity: word spotting...