Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 37, No. 4, December

Dual-Task Performance in Space: Results from a Single-Case Study during a Short-Term Space Mission
INTRODUCTION Since April 12, 1961, when Juri Gagarin became the first human in space, the space environment has become one of the most exciting and extreme working environments for humans. Unquestionably staying and working in space involves exposure...
Effect of Background Scene Complexity and Field Dependence on the Legibility of Head-Up Displays for Automotive Applications
INTRODUCTION A head-up display (HUD) uses specialized optics to display information in the operator's forward field of view as virtual images. This placement eliminates the need to shift gaze from the outside world to obtain information. HUD images...
Effect of Lifting Belts, Foot Movement, and Lift Asymmetry on Trunk Motions
INTRODUCTION Occupational low back pain represents an enormous cost to society, both financially and in terms of morbidity. Several occupational factors have been explored as to their contribution to low-back disorders (LBDs). Frequently, combinations...
Effects of Frequency on Free-Field Masking
INTRODUCTION Cherry (1953) suggested that the spatial distribution of sound sources influences the ability to focus on a particular sound - the target - in the presence of multiple interfering sounds - the maskers (the so-called cocktail party effect)....
Effects of Instruction Type and Boredom Proneness in Vigilance: Implications for Boredom and Workload
INTRODUCTION Vigilance refers to the ability of an observer to maintain attention over long, uninterrupted periods. In vigilance research subjects are typically asked to look for infrequent and often subtle critical signals in an unchanging environment,...
Field Evaluation of an Advance Brake Warning System
INTRODUCTION In the United States, based on National Accident Sampling System data (NHTSA, 1994), rear-end collisions constitute approximately 25% of all multiple-vehicle accidents. It is therefore not surprising that over the past 25 years, much research...
Level of Operator Control and Changes in Heart Rate Variability during Simulated Flight Maintenance
INTRODUCTION The recent growth of interest in the application of mental workload techniques has coincided broadly with the increasing use of semi-automated human-machine systems in the workplace. These changes in work design have attracted concern over...
Measuring Knowledge Organization as a Method for Assessing Learning during Training
INTRODUCTION The objectives of the present studies were to apply and test a cognitively based measure of learning during training: the structural assessment of knowledge. This effort differs from traditional training research in that the focus is on...
Oculomotor Responses with Aviator Helmet-Mounted Displays and Their Relation to In-Flight Symptoms
INTRODUCTION Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) belong to a category of aviator displays in which the image from a night vision sensor is presented in the "head-up" mode. The first (and as yet the only) operational HMD is employed in the AH-64 Apache helicopter...
Practice Effects on Skil Acquisition, Learning Outcome, Retention, and Sensitivity to Relearning
INTRODUCTION Learning, or skill acquisition, represents a change in a person that occurs at a particular time as a function of experience or practice. Because it is not directly observable, learning must be inferred from performance on a memory test,...
Selecting System Functionalities for Interface Evaluation
INTRODUCTION Software developers frequently confront the task of computer interface evaluation. The interface is a medium through which users communicate with a computer system. Specifically, it is a combination of hardware (e.g., visual display medium,...
Symmetric and Asymmetric Two-Handed Pull-Push Strength of Young Adults
INTRODUCTION Industrial productivity is affected by operator capability and well-being. It is therefore ergonomically prudent to design work so as to optimize productivity without jeopardizing safety. Statistics Canada (1991) reported that 48% of all...
Visual Arithmetic, Computational Graphics, and the Spatial Metaphor
INTRODUCTION A spatial metaphor underlies the design of graphs (e.g., Wainer, 1984). The term metaphor often refers to figurative language in which the metaphor transfers meaning from one object (the vehicle) to another (the tenor), typically through...
Visual Scene Properties Relevant for Simulating Low-Altitude Flight: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach
INTRODUCTION Vision provides important information for perceiving and controlling one's own motion within a fixed environment (see Warren, 1990, for an overview of visual self-motion perception). An important component of any vehicle simulator intended...