Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 40, No. 1, March

An Index of Dynamic Density
THE DESIGN PROBLEM Increases in air traffic will continue to limit system capacity and drain valuable organizational resources and capital. To counter these structural problems, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the civil aviation community...
Automobile Seat Belts: Usage Patterns in Automatic Belt Systems
INTRODUCTION The use of manual (i.e., active) restraint systems (or seat belts) in cars has increased dramatically over the last several decades, changing from around 10% in the late 1970s to as much as 68% in the 1990s (Datta & Guzek, 1992; National...
Binocular Virtual Reality Displays: When Problems Do and Don't Occur
INTRODUCTION It is fashionable to label any computer representation of three-dimensional (3D) space as "virtual reality." We have previously suggested (Wann & Mon-Williams, 1996) that the term virtual reality (VR) should be reserved for displays...
Driver Stress and Performance on a Driving Simulator
INTRODUCTION Moderate levels of stress appear to be fairly common in everyday driving. In a diary study of company car drivers, around 50% of drivers reported adverse affective reactions on any given day (Gulian, Debney, Glendon, Davies, & Matthews,...
Effects of Signal Probability on Individual Differences in Vigilance
INTRODUCTION When individuals are required to observe repetitive changes in an external environment, the accuracy of their responses to critical events tends to decrease with time on task. This response deterioration is commonly referred to as vigilance...
Effects of Text Structure and Prior Knowledge of the Learner on Navigation in Hypertext
INTRODUCTION Any discussion about the use of hypertext for learning or in the broader context of information retrieval seems incomplete without some mention of the disorientation problem. There seems to be a growing consensus of opinion that disorientation...
Functional Limitations to Daily Living Tasks in the Aged: A Focus Group Analysis
INTRODUCTION A driving force behind research in the area of applied gerontology is the desire to enhance the daily lives of older individuals. A primary goal of many older individuals is to maintain an independent lifestyle (Willis, 1996); thus, many...
Guidelines for Presenting Quantitative Data in HFES Publications
Editor's Note: This article was prepared at my invitation following a discussion with the editorial board over a rather ironic situation that we face in reviewing manuscripts. Whereas one would expect a discipline that claims special expertise in information...
Levels of Expertise and Instructional Design
INTRODUCTION When scientific or technical information is presented to learners, it usually is conveyed via multiple sources. Frequently, instruction involves a combination of textual and diagrammatic information. How the text and diagrams are designed...
Monitoring Working Memory Load during Computer-Based Tasks with EEG Pattern Recognition Methods
INTRODUCTION In this paper we document the evaluation of a method for deriving a continuous index of the working memory load that is incurred by individuals who are engaged in computer-based tasks. Working memory refers to the limited capacity for holding...
Sound Localization: Information Theory Analysis
INTRODUCTION Traffic-related fatalities in the United States dropped 30% from 1983 to 1992, decreasing to a rate of 1.8 deaths per 100 million miles traveled, or approximately 40 000 deaths per year (Leasure, 1994). Although this decrease is significant,...
The Impact of Cross-Training and Workload on Team Functioning: A Replication and Extension of Initial Findings
INTRODUCTION The role of teams in organizational functioning has recently been increasing (see Guzzo & Salas, 1995), and developing and maintaining high performance in teams has been a primary goal for many researchers and practitioners (e.g., Cannon-Bowers,...
Trunk Muscle Use during Pulling Tasks: Effects of a Lifting Belt and Footing Conditions
INTRODUCTION Epidemiologic studies frequently cite occupational tasks that require lifting, pushing, and pulling as contributors to low-back disorders (Andersson, 1997). Most of the biomechanical studies oriented toward the prevention of occupational...
Work Schedule and Task Factors in Upper-Extremity Fatigue
INTRODUCTION Workers performing manual tasks involving the upper extremities often develop painful symptoms that can reduce work capacity and increase sick leave (Anderson, 1984). These symptoms arise from excessive fatigue in muscles that are repetitively...