Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 45, No. 2, Summer

Associations between Errors and Contributing Factors in Aircraft Maintenance
INTRODUCTION The unsafe behavior of human operators is one of the most pressing threats to the safety of complex technological systems. It has been estimated that human error is involved in 58% of medical misadventures (Leape et al., 1991), 70%...
Bimodal Displays Improve Speech Comprehension in Environments with Multiple Speakers
INTRODUCTION Bimodal Speech Perception Some research examining the perception of speech has been unimodal; the visual and auditory aspects of speech comprehension are investigated separately. For example, researchers examining the visual aspects...
Cognitive Demands of Collision Avoidance in Simulated Ship Control
INTRODUCTION There is now a substantial body of research on patterns of workload and decrement in complex real-life tasks, such as driving, aviation, process control, and other advanced industrial systems (see Wickens & Hollands, 1999). However,...
Designing Teams for First-of-a-Kind, Complex Systems Using the Initial Phases of Cognitive Work Analysis: Case Study
INTRODUCTION Cognitive work analysis (Rasmussen, Pejtersen, & Goodstein, 1994; Vicente, 1999) has most commonly been used for the analysis, design, and evaluation of interfaces for complex sociotechnical systems (e.g., Burns, 2000; Dinadis &...
Differences in Safety Climate between Hospital Personnel and Naval Aviators
INTRODUCTION Safety in industries of high intrinsic hazard, such as aviation, military operations, nuclear power, and health care, is known to be a property primarily of systems rather than individuals. Organizations that perform successfully under...
Effects of Age, Speech Rate, and Environmental Support in Using Telephone Voice Menu Systems
INTRODUCTION Telephone voice menu systems effectively transform touch-tone telephones into computer input and output devices. As a result of the versatility, decreasing costs, and increasing power of these systems, their use has become more widespread...
Effects of Load and Speed on Lumbar Vertebral Kinematics during Lifting Motions
INTRODUCTION Spine kinematics is a critical aspect in biomechanical analysis of low-back stress associated with the performance of physical tasks such as manual materials handling. Both the overall spine orientation and curvature (e.g., lumbar lordosis...
Gaze-Contingent Multiresolutional Displays: An Integrative Review
INTRODUCTION Technology users often need or want large, high-resolution displays that exceed possible or practical limits on bandwidth and/or computation resources. In reality, however, much of the information that is generated and transmitted in...
Measuring the Fit between Human Judgments and Automated Alerting Algorithms: A Study of Collision Detection
INTRODUCTION Motivation A common paradigm in human-automation interaction requires a human to make a judgment, in parallel with an automated system, and then to consider, accept, or reject the automated output as appropriate. Such judgments are...
New Alternative Methods of Analyzing Human Behavior in Cued Target Acquisition
INTRODUCTION Technology currently allows for the development of more sophisticated automated systems in which a computer can potentially make decisions previously reserved for humans. In many tasks it will be desirable for the human to remain "in...
Speed-of-Processing and Driving Simulator Training Result in Improved Driving Performance
INTRODUCTION Some older drivers are prone to crashing, whereas others remain crash free throughout their driving careers. Until fairly recently, little has been known about which behavioral and physiological changes differentiate competent older...
Weatherwise: Evaluation of a Cue-Based Training Approach for the Recognition of Deteriorating Weather Conditions during Flight
INTRODUCTION Continued visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) remains one of the most significant causes of fatalities in the U.S. general aviation industry. Between 1983 and 1992, accidents related to visual flight rules...