Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 38, No. 1, March

A Comparison of Methods for Promoting Geographic Knowledge in Simulated Aircraft Navigation
INTRODUCTION Geographic disorientation, or the state of being lost, is an important issue in aviation safety because lost pilots expose themselves and their passengers to unnecessary risks. It has been shown that all types of pilots are susceptible...
Application of a Three-Dimensional Auditory Display in a Flight Task
INTRODUCTION A three-dimensional (3D) auditory display presents sounds from arbitrary directions spanning a sphere around the listener. The practical application of such displays has become feasible through the development of techniques for creating...
A Survey of Automatic Teller Machine Usage across the Adult Life Span
INTRODUCTION New technologies emerge in our society on a regular basis. Whether or not these technologies remain and are successful depends on the degree to which they are adopted by the members of society. A version of automatic teller machines (ATMs)...
Automatic Speech Recognition in Adverse Environments
INTRODUCTION Automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology allows human speech signals to be used in order to carry out preset activities. Upon detection and recognition of a sound or string of sounds, the recognizer can be programmed to execute a predetermined...
Effectiveness of Individual and Dyadic Training Protocols: The Influence of Trainee Interaction Anxiety
INTRODUCTION The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of individual differences in interaction anxiety on the effectiveness of a dyadic training protocol in teaching a complex psychomotor skill. The skill taught was Space...
Effects of Cold Air Stress on the Performance of a Command and Control Task
INTRODUCTION Complex human-machine systems are typically designed for operators working at near-ideal levels of alertness and cognitive efficiency. However, stress-related changes in perceptual and cognitive ability can significantly affect overall...
Isoperformance Curves in Applied Psychology
INTRODUCTION Isoperformance is based on an old idea. The usual relationship between two variables involves a determinant and an effect or, somewhat more generally, an independent and a dependent variable. Typically the determinant or independent variable...
Kinematics, Kinetics, and Psychophysical Perceptions in Symmetric and Twisting Pushing and Pulling Tasks
INTRODUCTION The incidence of and costs associated with low-back pain have increased to staggering proportions. Manual materials handling injuries are a major source of worker absence and high compensation claims (National Institute for Occupational...
Mixing and Matching Lower-Level Codes for Object Displays: Evidence for Two Sources of Proximity Compatibility
The proximity compatibility principle (PCP) proposes that visually unitary configurations of data values, such as object displays, will support information integration better than will more separable formats. In the present study formats were created...
The Effect of a Priori Probability and Complexity on Decision Making in a Supervisory Control Task
INTRODUCTION In spite of recurring criticism, automation remains appealing from several points of view. First, human error is still a significant factor underlying accidents in shipping (Wagenaar & Groeneweg, 1987), aviation (Hawkins, 1993), process...
The Impact of Cross-Training on Team Functioning: An Empirical Investigation
INTRODUCTION Team effectiveness in the workplace is of vital concern to organizations that depend on teams to perform important tasks. Recently research on work teams has begun to examine several factors that foster effective team performance, including...
The Spacing Effect in Aircraft Recognition
INTRODUCTION The shooting down over Iraq of two U.S. Blackhawk helicopters by friendly fire on April 14, 1994, illustrates the critical importance of aircraft recognition in many military operations and raises several human factors issues. One issue...
Time-to-Collision Estimation in a Simulated Driving Task
INTRODUCTION When operating a vehicle the driver is continually faced with the problem of avoiding collisions with other vehicles, pedestrians, and various obstacles that may lie in the path of travel. To prevent potential collisions, the driver may...