Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 38, No. 3, September

A Comparison of Sequential and Spatial Displays in a Complex Monitoring Task
INTRODUCTION In many complex systems, such as aircraft, nuclear power plants, and automobiles, little space is available in which to present information to the operator. As systems are engineered with increasing complexities and capabilities, additional...
A Comparison of Two Control-Display Gain Measures for Head-Controlled Computer Input Devices
INTRODUCTION Head-controlled computer input devices, or headpointers, allow computer operators to maneuver a cursor in a graphical user interface using head movements instead of the hand movements that are usually needed for mice and trackballs. Head-controlled...
Age-Related Differences in Perceptual Learning
INTRODUCTION Learning is a lifelong endeavor. Consequently, it is critical for trainers to understand how best to train adults of all ages. In the present-day work environment, new technologies and improvements in existing technologies necessitate employee...
A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Ecological Interface Design on Skill Acquisition
INTRODUCTION The vast majority of experimental evaluations of interface design concepts reported in the literature have been conducted over a short period, usually ranging from a few hours to, at most, 1 h/day for a few weeks. For several reasons, however,...
Critique of 'A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Ecological Interface Design on Skill Acquisition' by Christoffersen, Hunter, and Vicente
As one of the reviewers of this article, I've been asked by the editor to write a critique describing my comments and reservations about the study. This is a new feature for Human Factors, so I undertake this task with the knowledge that many readers...
Decision Support and Information Search in a Complex Environment: Evidence from Archival Data in Auditing
INTRODUCTION The ability to analyze ill-structured problems and to search for background information is part of situation assessment in naturalistic decision making (Noble, 1993; Orasanu & Connolly, 1993). Searching databases to find such information...
Effect of Group Discussion on Acquisition of Complex Skills
INTRODUCTION Discussion between students during cooperative task performance can facilitate learning of many tasks (Johnson, Johnson, & Stanne, 1985; Sharan, Hertz-Lazarowitz, & Ackerman, 1980; Skon, Johnson, & Johnson, 1981; Webb, 1982),...
Evaluation of a Rankine Cycle Display for Nuclear Power Plant Monitoring and Diagnosis
INTRODUCTION Traditionally, nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms have been designed according to a single-sensor single-indicator (SSSI) philosophy (Goodstein, 1981). Each sensor datum is displayed in an independent location on hard-wired panels...
Identifying Factors of Comfort and Discomfort in Sitting
INTRODUCTION Comfort and discomfort in sitting are major concerns of office workers (Kleeman, 1991; Lueder, 1983) and are commonly assessed in ergonomic evaluations of office environments (e.g., Helander, Czaja, Drury, Cary, & Burri, 1987; Shackel,...
Maintaining Lane Position with Peripheral Vision during In-Vehicle Tasks
INTRODUCTION Visual information is essential for a driver to maintain lateral and longitudinal control and to avoid hitting obstacles, other vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians. Beginners are taught that they should keep their hands on the wheel and...
Observer Sensitivity to Element Reliability in a Multielement Visual Display
INTRODUCTION Visual displays are commonly used to convey system information - such as air traffic flow or the status of a production line - to a human decision maker. A complex visual display may include several subordinate displays or display elements,...
Response to Maddox Critique
We sincerely thank both the editor and Michael Maddox for the opportunity to participate in this collegial debate centered on our article, "A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Ecological Interface Design on Skill Acquisition" (this issue). As we hope...
Speed Choice and Steering Behavior in Curve Driving
INTRODUCTION Car-driving behavior in curves may be regarded as an interesting case in which steering, as an example of operational performance, is intimately related to behavior on the tactical level - in this case, the choice of speed as a function...
Television Captions for Hearing-Impaired People: A Study of Key Factors That Affect Reading Performance
INTRODUCTION Closed captions for television are much like subtitles on foreign films because they allow hearing-impaired people to understand the dialogue of television programs and movies. The closed transmission of this information as part of the...
Training Older Adults to Use Automatic Teller Machines
INTRODUCTION Technological innovations occur at a rapid pace. In the financial realm, for example, the transfer of money has been revolutionized by credit card scanners in stores, direct deposits, telephone banking, and automatic teller machines (ATMs)....