Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 39, No. 4, December

Accuracy of Pointing a Binaural Listening Array
INTRODUCTION Arrays of microphones have been used to increase the detection of distant or faint sources of sound by applying directional gain to the listening process. They can also be used to restore listeners' situation awareness by replacing auditory...
Binocular Rivalry as an Aid in Visual Inspection
INTRODUCTION Customer pressure for individualized orders in manufacturing is moving markets toward small batch production of rapidly changing products (Helander, 1997). Quality control is required for process control, demanding that an inspection system...
Cognitive Ability Determinants of Elite Pilot Performance
INTRODUCTION The concept of situational awareness (SA) has excited much interest and debate, as reflected in a recent special issue of Human Factors (Gilson, 1995). Whereas some (e.g., Endsley, 1995) see SA as an explanatory construct distinct from...
Continuous Concurrent Feedback Degrades Skill Learning: Implications for Training and Simulation
INTRODUCTION Over the past several decades, researchers have examined the role of numerous types of augmented (extrinsic, or supplemental) information feedback for the learning of movement skills. (For reviews, see Magill, 1993; Salmoni, Schmidt, &...
Image Quality of Two-Primary Color Active-Matrix Liquid-Crystal Displays
INTRODUCTION Most helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) designed for use in military aircraft use a miniature monochrome CRT as the image source. Pilots would like a color image source because color can enhance perceptual segregation of symbols, reinforce...
Interference and Information Organization in Keeping Track of Continually Changing Information
INTRODUCTION An inherent property of most complex systems and environments is that information values associated with variables are not stable but change over time. However, the human memory system is not adept at handling either the information loads...
Spatial Discrimination in Three-Dimensional Displays as a Function of Computer Graphics Eyepoint Elevation and Stereoscopic Viewing
INTRODUCTION Numerous studies have shown the limitations of current two-dimensional (2D) spatial displays for applied spatial tasks. For example, the use of a plan view display for flight control in aviation may result in more frequent horizontal (x...
Superimposition, Symbology, Visual Attention, and the Head-Up Display
INTRODUCTION The head-up display (HUD) projects instrument symbology onto a transparent screen in the pilot's forward field of view so that the pilot can concurrently monitor the display and maintain a view of the far domain environment. Primary flight...
Task Effects on Three-Dimensional Dynamic Postures during Seated Reaching Movements: An Investigative Scheme and Illustration
INTRODUCTION The need to model and simulate human dynamic manual activities is receiving increasing attention in the field of ergonomics (Ayoub & Hsiang, 1992; Chaffin, 1992). An initial but essential step toward fulfilling this need is the establishment...
Team Play with a Powerful and Independent Agent: Operational Experiences and Automation Surprises on the Airbus A-320
INTRODUCTION In a variety of domains, the development and introduction of advanced automated systems has led to an increase in the efficiency and precision of operations. At the same time, unexpected problems with human-automation interaction related...
The Effects of Correlation and Response Bias in Alerted Monitor Displays
INTRODUCTION Many modern systems, such as nuclear power plants and advanced aircraft, are so complex that a human cannot control the system without the assistance of automation. The task demands placed on the human in such systems exceed the available...
Transfer of Spatial Information from a Virtual to Real Environment
INTRODUCTION The term virtual reality (VR) is popularly applied to human interactions with three-dimensional computer-generated environments that can be explored in real time (e.g., Kalawsky, 1993). There is little agreement about precisely what constitutes...