Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 45, No. 3, Fall

Attentional Models of Multitask Pilot Performance Using Advanced Display Technology
INTRODUCTION Two new technologies proposed for the advanced cockpit are the cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI), designed to enhance pilots' awareness of nearby traffic (Wickens, Helleberg, & Xu, 2002), and the data link communications...
Comparing Statistical and Machine Learning Classifiers: Alternatives for Predictive Modeling in Human Factors Research
INTRODUCTION Background As defined by Clancy (1997), classification analysis seeks to identify mathematical and/or statistical relationships between independent variables (discrete or continuous) that can effectively distinguish or characterize...
Determining the Effectiveness of the Usability Problem Inspector: A Theory-Based Model and Tool for Finding Usability Problems
INTRODUCTION Usability evaluation has grown to be part of every good effort to produce a software product that consumers can easily learn and use. The motivation to deliver products that satisfy consumer demand for usable applications has led to...
Effects of Deliberate Practice on Crisis Decision Performance
INTRODUCTION Within a number of professional domains, deliberate practice has been strongly linked to improved performance. For example, deliberate practice has been shown to lead to superior performance in music, athletics, reading, coaching, learning,...
Head Up versus Head Down: The Costs of Imprecision, Unreliability, and Visual Clutter on Cue Effectiveness for Display Signaling
INTRODUCTION Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) have proven valuable for soldiers in both ground and air operations (National Research Council, 1997) and are becoming increasingly popular as "wearable computers" for use in tasks such as maintenance...
Operator Functional State Classification Using Multiple Psychophysiological Features in an Air Traffic Control Task
INTRODUCTION Modern complex systems are capable of placing both high and low levels of cognitive demands on their human operators. If operators do not maintain an optimal functional state, then overall system performance may suffer. On one hand,...
Spatial Orientation in 3-D Desktop Displays: Using Rooms for Organizing Information
INTRODUCTION Spatial orientation is an important component of many everyday activities. Hunt's (2002) definition is typical: "Spatial orientation involves representation of the space about us, and the related ability to reason about movement within...
The Effect of Gesture on Speech Production and Comprehension
INTRODUCTION Cairncross (1997) coined the phrase "the death of distance," suggesting that distance may no longer be a limiting factor in people's ability to communicate. In fact, telecommunications systems are becoming ubiquitous in business and...
The Impact of Mental Fatigue on Exploration in a Complex Computer Task: Rigidity and Loss of Systematic Strategies
INTRODUCTION In modern workplaces, people commonly have to deal with increasingly complex problems, such as managing a big company, finding the fault in a power plant, and learning a new computer program without specific instructions. Although in...
The Vigilance Decrement Reflects Limitations in Effortful Attention, Not Mindlessness
INTRODUCTION Vigilance or sustained attention tasks typically require observers to monitor displays over extended periods for the occasional occurrence of critical events (signals). The signals are usually embedded in a context of recurrent nonsignal...
Traffic Signal Color Recognition Is a Problem for Both Protan and Deutan Color-Vision Deficients
INTRODUCTION Approximately 8% of males and 0.5% of females in the population have congenital red-green color-deficient vision. There is little true color blindness (~0.0005%; Pokorny, Smith, Verriest, & Pinckers, 1979). These people have reduced...
What to Expect from Immersive Virtual Environment Exposure: Influences of Gender, Body Mass Index, and Past Experience
INTRODUCTION Virtual environments (VEs) are available for countless applications in fields as diverse as medicine, training, and entertainment and other leisure-time activities (Stone, 2002). Formerly reserved for the military and scientific endeavors,...