Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 38, No. 4, December

Adapting to New Technology in the Operating Room
INTRODUCTION Increased computational and graphic capabilities have fueled attempts to automate more of the human operator's role in complex fields of practice such as aircraft flight decks (Billings, 1991), air traffic control, space vehicle systems...
An Isometric Predictor for Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift for Chinese Men
INTRODUCTION Many researchers have sought to develop a means by which an acceptable job demand can be predicted. Both static and dynamic models have been developed based on the relationship between maximum acceptable weights of lift (MAWLs) and certain...
Aurally Aided Visual Search under Virtual and Free-Field Listening Conditions
INTRODUCTION In many modern workstations, including airplane cockpits, a preponderance of information provided to the operator comes via the visual modality. A number of excellent reasons support this design strategy. Neisser (1967) pointed out that...
Comparison of Self-Reporting of Deficiencies in Airway Management with Video Analyses of Actual Performance
INTRODUCTION Reports of human error in medicine are, in general, based on retrospective recall of events (e.g., Cooper, Newbower, & Kitz, 1984; Cooper, Newbower, Long, & McPeek, 1978) and focus on untoward outcomes suffered by patients. An example...
Differentiation of Visibility and Alcohol as Contributors to Twilight Road Fatalities
INTRODUCTION For more than a decade, nighttime fatality rates, adjusted for mileage, have averaged more than three times higher than daytime rates (National Safety Council 1980-1994). In 1993, for example, the nighttime rate was 3.9 fatalities per 100...
Effects of Adaptive Task Allocation on Monitoring of Automated Systems
INTRODUCTION The human operator in modern human-machine systems is often involved in supervisory control of automated subsystems, primarily in monitoring, diagnosis, and planning activities (Sheridan, 1970). Operational monitoring performance in such...
Keyboard Reaction Force and Finger Flexor Electromyograms during Computer Keyboard Work
INTRODUCTION Keyboard data entry systems are used widely in nearly all contemporary industries and occupations. Use ranges from a few keystrokes per hour to highly repetitive data entry, in which typists may perform as many as 200 000 keystrokes per...
Medication Instruction Design: Younger and Older Adult Schemas for Taking Medication
INTRODUCTION Nonadherence to prescribed medication is a widespread health care problem. It is particularly prevalent among older adults because they take disproportionately more medications (Morrow, Leirer, & Sheikh, 1988; Park, 1992). Although...
Relationships between Ambient Sounds and the Accuracy of Pharmacists' Prescription-Filling Performance
INTRODUCTION Consumption of accurately filled prescriptions is an important component of patient recovery. However, evidence shows that there may be a problem with the accuracy of prescription filling. Medication dispensing error rates ranging from...
Task Complexity in Emergency Medical Care and Its Implications for Team Coordination
INTRODUCTION In recent years interest in human performance in medicine has led to a wide range of studies in medical domains in areas such as human error (e.g., Bogner, 1994; Cooper, Newbower, & Kitz, 1984; Donchin et al., 1995; Schwartz, Matthay,...
Users as Designers: How People Cope with Poor HCI Design in Computer-Based Medical Devices
INTRODUCTION Technological change and economic pressure are moving medical practice out of hospitals and into the home or other alternative health care settings. Patients with chronic conditions may be able to move out of the hospital by using infusion...
Visibility of Text and Icon Highway Signs under Dynamic Viewing Conditions
INTRODUCTION The primary goal of the present study was to extend recent findings regarding the superior visibility of icon (pictorial) highway signs over text signs to a broader range of viewing conditions. Specifically, we attempted to compare sign...