Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 46, No. 4, Winter

Address Entry While Driving: Speech Recognition versus a Touch-Screen Keyboard
INTRODUCTION Motor vehicle manufacturers expect that in the near future, a significant share of their profits will be associated with the sales of telematic devices--that is, computer-based in-vehicle information and communication systems such as...
Age Differences in Visual Search for Traffic Signs during a Simulated Conversation
INTRODUCTION A large body of evidence documents the difficulties experienced by older adults when they are engaged in visual search. Generally this work has involved search for simple visual features (e.g., orientation, colon and form) that is carried...
Comparing Effects of 2-D and 3-D Visual Cues during Aurally Aided Target Acquisition
INTRODUCTION Recent advances in digital signal-processing technology and the development of electromagnetic position trackers have enabled the construction of virtual 3-D audio spatial displays. These displays have been used to aid visual target...
Conversation Limits the Functional Field of View
INTRODUCTION Use of a cellular phone while driving creates a situation that may be unlike that of other driving distractions in its effect on driving. Although demographic data are limited on the number of accidents that have occurred while a driver...
Driver Distraction from a Control Theory Perspective
INTRODUCTION The Problem and the Approach Driver distraction as a research topic is currently popular, for good reason. Automobiles and trucks are undergoing large changes in terms of the new sensor, computer, and communication technology they...
Driving and Side Task Performance: The Effects of Display Clutter, Separation, and Modality
INTRODUCTION The introduction of new in-vehicle technologies (IVTs), telematics, and "infotainment" into the automobile creates additional tasks that drivers may perform concurrently (Ashley, 2001). Drivers will need to access and process information...
Lessons from a Comparison of Work Domain Models: Representational Choices and Their Implications
INTRODUCTION Cognitive work analysis (CWA) and associated techniques focusing on the analysis of work domains are becoming popular methods in the analysis and design of complex systems (Burns, Barsalou, Handlei; Kuo, & Harrigan, 2000; Flach,...
Maximum Isometric Lifting Strengths of Men in Teamwork
INTRODUCTION Human strength is extensively used for operating equipment or moving objects. The evaluation of human strength is necessary for matching the muscular capability of workers with the force requirement for a particular job and for developing...
Predicting Practical Fitness to Drive in Drivers with Visual Field Defects Caused by Ocular Pathology
INTRODUCTION Information relevant to driving is predominantly visual (e.g., traffic signs, distance to the car ahead, communication with other road participants), and this has led many governments to set firm visual standards for driving licensing....
Preface to the Special Section on Driver Distraction
Beginning with the introduction of the car radio, there have been concerns regarding how in-vehicle technology might undermine driving safety. Those concerns are particularly apparent today as many worry about the safety consequences of introducing...
Profiles in Driver Distraction: Effects of Cell Phone Conversations on Younger and Older Drivers
INTRODUCTION Summarizing the literature on aging and dual-task performance, Kramer and Larish (1996; see also Craik, 1977, and Hartley, 1992, for similar conclusions) noted that "one of the best exemplars of a mental activity in which large and...
Recovering from Interruptions: Implications for Driver Distraction Research
INTRODUCTION Crash data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) indicate that approximately 25% of all crashes are the result of inattention or distraction (Wang, Knipling, & Goodman, 1996). It has also been estimated...
Speech-Based E-Mail and Driver Behavior: Effects of an In-Vehicle Message System Interface
INTRODUCTION Driving is a complex, safety-critical task. However, most people considered it to be a familiar, even safe, everyday activity that presents no special problems for the experienced driver--so much so that drivers frequently choose to...
The Apparent and Effective Dimensionality of Representations of Objects
INTRODUCTION The perception of size is a fundamental process in vision: perceiving and navigating through the natural environment involves the continuous assessment of the sizes of objects and spaces (Kosslyn, Flynn, Amsterdam, & Wang, 1990)....
Verbal Estimation of Peak Exertion Intensity
INTRODUCTION Researchers and practitioners of occupational ergonomics are faced with a limited number of valid and practical tools for assessing the magnitude of physical exertion. To assess the physical demands of using a screwdriver, for example,...