Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 38, No. 2, June

Alternating Task Modules in Isochronal Distributed Training of Complex Tasks
INTRODUCTION The beneficial effects of spacing practice are well established even when the interval between practice opportunities is filled with other activities (Carlson & Yaure, 1990; Glenberg, 1979). Accordingly, a training program that teaches...
A Paired Comparison Method for Interval Scaling
INTRODUCTION There are times when a study examines subjective information about a set of items, opinions, or situations. Rank ordering the set of items, opinions, or situations provides only basic information about how important they are to a research...
Attention Distribution and Decision Making in Tactical Air Combat
INTRODUCTION More than a decade ago, Flathers, Giffen, and Rockwell (1982) discussed the paucity of data available on pilot decision making. "Though pilot judgment has long been recognized as an important factor in the safety of flight, research in...
Decision Making in Complex Naval Command-and-Control Environments
INTRODUCTION This paper presents the findings of a study on how experienced personnel make decisions in complex command and control environments. The characteristics of these settings are consistent with those of other natural settings (e.g., in terms...
Effects of Workload and Structure on Team Processes and Performance: Implications for Complex Team Decision Making
INTRODUCTION The prevalence of teams in numerous operational and organizational settings, coupled with increased technological advancements and system complexity, have enhanced the importance of team performance as an area for psychological research....
Emergency Decision Making the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry
INTRODUCTION The offshore hydrocarbon industry currently employs about a quarter of a million workers worldwide (ILO, 1993). At present levels of activity from the oil and gas industry in U.K. waters, a workforce of approximately 29 000 people (DTI,...
Establishing the Boundaries of a Paradigm for Decision-Making Research
INTRODUCTION Several modern trends dictate that scientists and practitioners in the area of decision-making research make significant headway in understanding, developing, training, and supporting effective decision making. These trends include advancing...
Human Performance and Control of Multiple Systems
INTRODUCTION Many applications of remote control are more cost-effective when a single operator is responsible for several platforms simultaneously. This multiplies the performance benefits of human presence in the overall system but presents unique...
Metarecognition in Time-Stressed Decision Making: Recognizing, Critiquing, and Correcting
ANALYSIS, RECOGNITION, AND METACOGNITION A U.S. AEGIS cruiser was in the Gulf of Sidra below the "line of death," in waters claimed as Libyan by Mu'ammar Muhammad Ghaddafi, when it detected a gunboat emerging from a Libyan port. The gunboat turned directly...
Monitoring an Automated System for a Single Failure: Vigilance and Task Complexity Effects
INTRODUCTION Automation is ubiquitous in many modern work settings, but perhaps most so in aviation. Automation in aviation, as in other domains, has increased demands on the pilot to monitor systems for possible failures. As research on vigilance has...
Research with Patriot Air Defense Officers: Examining Information Order Effects
INTRODUCTION According to Klein, Orasanu, Calderwood, and Zsambok (1993), the four key features of naturalistic decision making are "dynamic and continually changing conditions, real-time reactions to these changes, ill-defined goals and ill-structured...
Supporting Perception in the Service of Dynamic Decision Making
INTRODUCTION In complex, dynamic environments, a central achievement of learning may be to simplify tasks "by resorting to pre-established routines, heuristics and short-cuts" (Reason, 1987, p. 468). Time pressure and complexity of operational environments...
Validation of the AGARD STRES Battery of Performance Tests
INTRODUCTION Only recently in the field of human performance assessment have systematic efforts been made to integrate findings or standardize the collection of data in order to facilitate accurate comparison of experimental results and to aid in the...
When the Patient Chooses: Describing Unaided Decision in Health Care
INTRODUCTION In contemporary health care a dramatic shift has occurred in the way treatment decisions are made. In situations in which medically equivalent therapies are available, it is now customary for the patient to be involved in the selection...