Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 40, No. 2, June

A Quantitative Measure for Degree of Automation and Its Relation to System Performance and Mental Load
INTRODUCTION Automation has been employed in industrial processes to achieve consistent product quality, minimize operator workload, reduce human error during the execution of repetitive tasks, improve process availability and production efficiency,...
Cognitive Factors in the Close Visual and Magnetic Particle Inspection of Welds Underwater
INTRODUCTION Subsea inspection and nondestructive testing (NDT) of offshore structures and pipelines are the most common types of underwater tasks carried out by commercial divers (James, Ratjanm, Chadwin, & Ross, 1985; Leach & Morris, 1988)....
Comprehension of Pictorial Symbols: Effects of Context and Test Method
INTRODUCTION With increasing attention to multiculturalism and worldwide trade, pictorial symbols are increasingly being used to convey important messages. Well-designed symbols have the ability to communicate large amounts of information at a glance....
Continuous Haptic Information in Target Tracking from a Moving Platform
INTRODUCTION In recent decades the concept of teleoperation has evolved from fiction to reality. Developments in computer technology (e.g., miniature electronics) and in satellite navigation systems (e.g., the Global Positioning System; Odum, 1995),...
Effects of a Split Keyboard Design and Wrist Rest on Performance, Posture, and Comfort
INTRODUCTION For more than 20 years there has been concern that working at computer terminals could lead to musculoskeletal discomfort and disorders (Bammer & Martin, 1988; Bergqvist, Wolgast, Nilsson, & Voss, 1995; Bernard, Sauter, Peterson,...
Effects of Practice and Learner Control on Short- and Long-Term Gain and Efficiency
INTRODUCTION Two independent research issues motivated the work reported here. First, we were interested in trying to replicate findings from an earlier study (Shute & Gawlick, 1995) that examined the effects of practice condition on performance,...
Effects of Sleep Deprivation and User Interface on Complex Performance: A Multilevel Analysis of Compensatory Control
INTRODUCTION A major requirement for the design of complex human-machine systems is the prevention of skill breakdown under threats from unplanned and uncontrollable aspects of the work environment, such as stress states or extreme levels of demand....
Navigational Checking Using 3D Maps: The Influence of Elevation Angle, Azimuth, and Foreshortening
INTRODUCTION To aid orientation, navigators utilize maps. Determining geographical location therefore requires the navigator to compare map features with land features. To determine congruency, the navigator first perceives and then processes features...
Principles of Educational Multimedia User Interface Design
INTRODUCTION Multimedia user interfaces combine various media, such as text, graphics, sound, and video, to present information. Because of improvements in technology and decreases in costs, many human factors engineers will soon be designing user interfaces...
Use of the Critical Decision Method to Elicit Expert Knowledge: A Case Study in the Methodology of Cognitive Task Analysis
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this article is to examine cognitive task analysis from a number of perspectives, including its applications and products, methodological issues involved in its use, and outstanding research needs. Rather than analyze an...
Vision and Driving: Selective Effect of Optical Blur on Different Driving Tasks
INTRODUCTION A statement to the effect that 90% of the information required for driving is visual is common in the literature on driving (see Sivak, 1996, for a recent review). From such a perspective, the 20/40 visual acuity (VA) criterion for obtaining...
Workplace Changes Associated with a Reduction in Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Office Workers
INTRODUCTION Musculoskeletal symptoms have been shown to be associated with physical attributes of the work environment, psychosocial stressors, and personal characteristics of individuals employed in office buildings. Increases in back, neck, shoulder,...