Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 40, No. 3, September

Aurally and Visually Guided Visual Search in a Virtual Environment
INTRODUCTION Highly visual tasks such as flying and driving rely on the accurate and rapid detection and localization of objects so that appropriate action (e.g., avoidance) can be taken. Because of humans' frontally placed eyes, objects out of...
Contributions of Proprioception to Navigation in Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION Complex spatial activities require sophisticated mental representations of space. One way to acquire an orientation-independent mental representation of a place is to view it from an immersed first-person perspective (Presson, DeLange,...
Effects of Localized Auditory Information on Visual Target Detection Performance Using a Helmet-Mounted Display
INTRODUCTION Researchers (Furness, 1986; Stinnett, 1989) have recognized the tremendous potential that helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) and other virtual environment (VE) technologies have for enhancing pilot effectiveness in future air combat environments....
Effects of Variation in System Responsiveness on User Performance in Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION Designers of virtual environments (VEs) face a fundamental trade-off. Both a high level of detail (LOD, the visual complexity used in display) and good system responsiveness (SR, the time that elapses until the system responds to user...
Empirical Models Based on Free-Modulus Magnitude Estimation of Perceived Presence in Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION The illusion that a user is present or immersed in a virtual environment (VE) is a primary goal of virtual reality (Ellis, 1993). It is the attempt to create an illusion of presence that distinguishes VEs from other human-computer interfaces....
Evidence from a Partial Report Task for Forgetting in Dynamic Spatial Memory
INTRODUCTION Little is understood about how people represent dynamic spatial knowledge (i.e., the knowledge of rapidly changing spatial situations needed in real-time tasks such as driving). For example, drivers must keep track of the location of...
Frame of Reference Effects on Scientific Visualization Subtasks
INTRODUCTION The rapid increase in interest in visualization in both scientific and aviation contexts has led many to search for the "ultimate" form of visualization medium. Classical human factors rhetoric teaches that a well-designed computer...
Localization of Virtual Objects in the near Visual Field
INTRODUCTION Until recently, most studies concerning the design of see-through virtual image displays have considered systems that present virtual images focused only at large distances from the users' eyes ([greater than] 2 m). Research on the...
Manipulation Performance in Interactive Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION In recent years virtual environment (VE) techniques have become successfully operational in the design world for communication and evaluation purposes. Now the combination of head-mounted displays, head trackers, and powerful image...
Measuring Skill Acquisition and Retention with an ATM Simulator: The Need for Age-Specific Training
INTRODUCTION New technologies such as automatic teller machines (ATMs) are assumed to be simple and easy to use, but in fact they are difficult for older adults to use (e.g., Hatta & Iiyama, 1991; Rogers, Fisk, Mead, Walker, & Cabrera, 1996)....
Nonvisually Guided Locomotion to a Previously Viewed Target in Real and Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION Virtual environments (VEs) and their interfaces typically are designed to recreate some of the sensations and experiences that characterize real-world environments. The success of this endeavor has been limited by both the available...
Ocular Vergence Measurement in Projected and Collimated Simulator Displays
INTRODUCTION Visual displays employed in flight simulators and other virtual environments have the potential to induce inappropriate oculomotor responses (Roscoe, 1985). For example, when a distant scene is projected on a near surface, the eyes...
Telepresence
INTRODUCTION Synthetic environment (SE) technology is gaining wide acceptance within industrialized nations in the waning years of the 20th century. According to Durlach and Mavor (1995), an SE features computer mediation of user interaction with...
The Influence of Body Movement on Subjective Presence in Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION When people are given information about an environment, they may have a sense of being present in that environment to a greater or lesser extent. In particular, when people receive sensory data from one environment (e.g., kinesthetic...
The Relationship between Low Back Discomfort Ratings and the NIOSH Lifting Index
INTRODUCTION Lower back injuries have posed a major threat to worker performance in industry. According to the National Safety Council's Accident Facts (1992), back injuries account for 32% of all worker compensation cases, making it the most common...