Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 39, No. 3, September

A Dynamic Mechanical Model for Hand Force in Right Angle Nutrunner Operation
INTRODUCTION Power nutrunners are widely used in manufacturing because of their ability to tighten threaded fasteners rapidly, their capacity to generate high torque, and their reliability in achieving target torque levels. Joint tightening is dependent...
Aging and Decision Making: Driving-Related Problem Solving
INTRODUCTION Decision making is a critical aspect of daily life. There is an assumption that older adults will make decisions differently than younger adults and that they will perform worse because of the high cognitive demands of many decision tasks....
A Methodology for Optimally Designing Console Panels for Use by a Single Operator
INTRODUCTION The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for optimally designing a console panel for a single operator based on a new design paradigm. This design paradigm uses a mathematical optimization model that minimizes an objective...
A New Look at an Old Study on Information Display: Washburne (1927) Reconsidered
INTRODUCTION The field of human factors and ergonomics seems haunted by a number of questions that have existed throughout its history but somehow have not been resolved through research. One such issue is the best way to present quantitative information....
Artificial Looming Yields Improved Performance over Lateral Motion: Implications for Stereoscopic Display Techniques
INTRODUCTION In the natural world, it is important for organisms to respond effectively to looming objects because failure to do so could result in the organism's demise. Once an organism is aware of an approaching object, it can take evasive action...
Competition and Performance on a Computer-Based Complex Perceptual-Motor Task
INTRODUCTION Competition has been saddled with a generally negative reputation in the literature on learning and task performance. Johnson and Johnson (1975) reviewed the literature on competition and concluded, "Competition as a goal structure did...
Cross-Modal Equivalence of Visual and Auditory Scatterplots for Exploring Bivariate Data Samples
INTRODUCTION The increasing emphasis on development of multimedia interfaces has made data sonification feasible on desktop computers. With this technology auditory displays can provide a useful alternative to traditional visual data plots and graphs....
Effects of Team Size on the Maximum Weight Bar Lifting Strength of Military Personnel
INTRODUCTION Teamwork can be used to reduce the load on an individual performing a heavy lifting task and is particularly useful when an object is bulky and mechanical aids are not available. Although there are guidelines for individual lifting, little...
Evaluation of the Probability of Spinal Damage Caused by Sustained Cyclic Compression Loading
INTRODUCTION The evaluation of risk factors for low back pain is mostly focused on the mechanical load on the lumbar spine. This approach is grounded in the conviction, shared by many authors, that mechanical damage to vertebral motion segments (VMSs)...
Framing of Task Performance Strategies: Effects on Performance in a Multiattribute Dynamic Decision Making Environment
INTRODUCTION Framing refers to a rather robust finding in the judgment and decision making literature that shows that individuals may exhibit reversals of preferences when the same decision making situation with identical outcomes and likelihoods is...
Multiaccommodative Stimuli in VR Systems: Problems & Solutions
INTRODUCTION Presentation of computer-generated information has recently been transformed with the advent of virtual reality (VR). VR systems display computer-generated images in two general ways: head-mounted displays (HMDs) and remote rear-projection...
Stability Limits in Extreme Postures: Effects of Load Positioning, Foot Placement, and Strength
INTRODUCTION Loss of balance can result in falling, low back and other musculoskeletal overexertions, and collisions with surroundings. However, stability analyses are not typical or significant components of ergonomic job analyses. Biomechanical, physiological,...
The Effect of Valve Handwheel Type, Operating Plane, and Grasping Posture on Peak Torque Strength of Young Men and Women
INTRODUCTION Valves are commonly installed in industrial production and private facilities. About 50% of all valves are operated manually (Mead, 1986), and these manual valves are usually operated with handwheels. When operating a small valve handwheel,...
The Effects of Response Format and Other Variables on Comparisons of Digital and Dial Displays
INTRODUCTION Many displays that in the past would have been in analog format are now being designed with digital readouts. Digital displays frequently can be more precise, more compact, and more economical than analog displays. In addition, digital...
The Effects of Spatial Frequency on Binocular Fusion: From Elementary to Complex Images
INTRODUCTION Stereoscopic displays are becoming an increasingly common feature of human-machine interfaces, and display technology has improved dramatically over the last few years (Patterson, Moe, & Hewitt, 1992; Sollenberger & Milgram, 1993;...
The Influence of Flooring on Standing Balance among Older Persons
INTRODUCTION For older persons, falls continue to be a serious health issue leading to disabling injury and death. Falls are the leading cause of accidental death in persons 65 years or older; deaths caused by falls are 12 times more frequent among...
Visual Accommodation and Virtual Images: Do Attentional Factors Mediate the Interacting Effects of Perceived Distance, Mental Workload, and Stimulus Presentation Modality?
INTRODUCTION Pilots are required to integrate a considerable amount of information in order to operate effectively. This requires combining their perception of the outside world with information derived from on-board systems. Such information is presented...