Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 45, No. 4, Winter

Assessing Workload through Physiological Measurements in Bus Drivers Using an Automated System during Docking
INTRODUCTION Traffic systems are undergoing important changes with the advent of intelligent transport systems (ITSs). Safety remains the predominant preoccupation when integrating an ITS into vehicles. Intelligent technologies may potentially improve...
Brain Potentials after Clicking a Mouse: A New Psychophysiological Approach to Human-Computer Interaction
INTRODUCTION In human factors and engineering psychological research, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have been applied to assess mental workload (Kramer & Weber, 2000). In particular, the P3 (P300) component of the ERP is proposed to...
Cardiac Measures of Driver Workload during Simulated Driving with and without Visual Occlusion
INTRODUCTION Psychophysiology has a long tradition within human factors (Boucsein & Backs, 2000) and has especially contributed to the present understanding of mental workload (Gaillard & Kramer, 2000). Mental workload is often considered...
Effects of a Psychophysiological System for Adaptive Automation on Performance, Workload, and the Event-Related Potential P300 Component
INTRODUCTION Recently, there has been much interest in adaptive automation or systems that can adapt to a user's changing requirements in real time. Further, changes in the state of the system can be initiated by either the operator or the system...
Handle Dynamics Predictions for Selected Power Hand Tool Applications
INTRODUCTION A 1983 survey of hand tool related injuries in the United States (Meyers & Trent, 1988) showed that of 129 399 cases, 22% were associated with powered hand tools. Recent data indicate that injuries associated with hand tools accounted...
Melioration and the Transition from Touch-Typing Training to Everyday Use
INTRODUCTION Studies of typing behavior differentiate between two basic strategies: visually guided typing and touch-typing (Long, 1976a; Long, Nimmo-Smith, & Whitefield, 1982; West, 1969). The visually guided strategy tends to be less efficient,...
Performance in a Complex Multiple-Task Environment during a Laboratory-Based Simulation of Occasional Night Work
INTRODUCTION Disruptions of work-rest cycles may be experienced by human operators in many different work environments. These may occur in various forms. There is the widely researched area of shift work, which involves the completion of work on...
Performance in a Complex Task and Breathing under Odor Exposure
INTRODUCTION Chemical sensory stimuli are omnipresent in everyday life as well as during work. Very low levels of environmental chemicals can be detected and categorized as pleasant or unpleasant. Influences of odors on both human behavior and mental...
Preparing Computers for Affective Communication: A Psychophysiological Concept and Preliminary Results
INTRODUCTION Computer technologies have advanced rapidly over the past decades, and their progress continues to accelerate. Computers have become smaller, faster, and, more importantly, much cheaper, so that they are now a relatively inexpensive...
Psychophysiology in Ergonomics: Preface to the Special Section
This special section of Human Factors is dedicated to the topic of psychophysiology in ergonomics. The usage of psychophysiological methods provides additional information to behavioral data and subjective ratings of cognitive and emotional experience....
Real-Time Assessment of Mental Workload Using Psychophysiological Measures and Artificial Neural Networks
INTRODUCTION Modern complex systems can place very high cognitive demands upon their operators. The rate of information flow, the complex nature of this information, and the number and rate of required decisions can overwhelm the human operator....
Sensitivity and Diagnosticity of the 0.1-Hz Component of Heart Rate Variability as an Indicator of Mental Workload
INTRODUCTION Evaluation of the ergonomic design quality of work systems or the usability of technical system components (e.g., software products; see ISO, 1998) requires the evaluation of mental workload. >From an occupational safety and health...
Stress Response Caused by System Response Time When Searching for Information on the Internet
INTRODUCTION The investigation of workplace and computer system characteristics interfering with performance and health is a major topic in human factors research. The field of industrial psychology has been concerned not only with effects of time...
Two Urinary Catecholamine Measurement Indices for Applied Stress Research: Effects of Time and Temperature until Freezing
INTRODUCTION There is increasing evidence that stress at work can have detrimental effects on performance, well-being, and health (Cooper, 1998; Ganster & Perrewe, 2001; Kahn & Byosiere, 1992; Marmot & Wilkinson, 1999; Sonnentag &...