Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 47, No. 1, Spring

A Reply to Bennett and Fritz's Critique of Marino and Mahan
Bennett and Fritz (2005, this issue) raised several questions about the approach to display design that we used to create the graphic nutrition labels for our study. Their primary concerns appear to involve the theoretical principles they think should...
A Tool to Assess the Comfort of Wearable Computers
INTRODUCTION The term wearable has been defined by Gemperle, Kasabach, Stivoric, Bauer, and Martin (1998) as implying the use of the human body as a support for some product. Extending this definition, Gemperle et al. coined the term dynamic wearability,...
Automation in Future Air Traffic Management: Effects of Decision Aid Reliability on Controller Performance and Mental Workload
INTRODUCTION Several proposals for future air traffic management (ATM) will change the roles of air" traffic controllers and pilots. For example, under Free Flight (FF; Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics [RTCA1, 1995) and Distributed Air/Ground...
Children Using Cellular Phones: The Effects of Shortcomings in User Interface Design
INTRODUCTION The number of children possessing cellular phones has increased remarkably within recent years. At least 45% of Germany's 12- to 13-year-olds own such a technical device (CHIP Online, 2003). The numerous cellular phone models of...
Configural Displays Can Improve Nutrition-Related Decisions: An Application of the Proximity Compatibility Principle
INTRODUCTION To help consumers make informed decisions regarding food nutrition, the federal government enacted legislation requiring that food labels contain data on a minimum set of 12 nutrients (Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, 1990). The...
Design and Evaluation of a Prototype Rear Obstacle Detection and Driver Warning System
INTRODUCTION In 2001 there were about 216,000 public road backing crashes, resulting in 18,000 injuries and 140 fatalities (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2002). The actual number of backing collisions is difficult to estimate...
Designing Effective Human-Automation-Plant Interfaces: A Control-Theoretic Perspective
INTRODUCTION The use of automation in complex sociotechnical systems has proved to be a double-edged sword. It is a technology that, perhaps more so than any other, speaks with a forked tongue to system designers. On the one hand, it promises unprecedented...
Effects of Automation of Information-Processing Functions on Teamwork
INTRODUCTION A large number of work environments that use automation are so complicated that they require multiple operators to simultaneously address tasks and manage automation (Bowers, Oser, Salas, & Cannon-Bowers, 1996). Although researchers...
Interacting with Notebook Input Devices: An Analysis of Motor Performance and Users' Expertise
INTRODUCTION In recent decades the use of portable computers has continuously increased, following the fundamental change in the nature of the computer-related work environment. The demand for mobility and networking has resulted in a replacement...
Interruption Management: The Use of Attention-Directing Tactile Cues
INTRODUCTION Task interruption in the workplace is a widespread phenomenon (e.g., see Mintzberg, 1973). Interruptions can have significant effects on both job performance and employee well-being. Perlow (1999), for example, found that software engineers...
Objects and Mappings: Incompatible Principles of Display Design-A Critique of Marino and Mahan
Mappings in Support of Integration Tasks Representation aiding is a "problem-driven" or an "ecological" approach to display design with a general orientation that is consistent with cognitive systems engineering (Rasmussen, Pejtersen, & Goodstein,...
Task Workload and Cognitive Abilities in Dynamic Decision Making
INTRODUCTION Dynamic decisions are real-time decisions that are interdependent and highly constrained by the decision-making environment (Edwards, 1962). For example, many large manufacturing and distribution systems store and disseminate information...
The Impact of Hearing Protection on Sound Localization and Orienting Behavior
INTRODUCTION Many occupational environments are characterized by high levels of noise that necessitate the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) to enhance overall performance and safety and reduce the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Although...
The Impact of Visual Layout Factors on Performance in Web Pages: A Cross-Language Study
INTRODUCTION Background "Page design is the most immediately visible part of web design" (Nielsen, 1999, p. 17). One's initial impressions and subjective experiences when arriving at a Web site are strongly influenced by the appearance of the...
Thumb Force and Muscle Loads Are Influenced by the Design of a Mechanical Pipette and by Pipetting Tasks
INTRODUCTION The plunger-operated mechanical pipette, which allows users to transfer precise volumes of liquid between containers, is one of the most commonly used hand tools in the laboratory. Use of the pipette often requires careful and precise...
Warrants for Prescription: Analytically and Empirically Based Approaches to Improving Decision Making
INTRODUCTION The study of decision making has always been motivated, at least in part, by the desire to improve it. Cognitive engineering is a burgeoning subspecialty within the human factors and ergonomics community that is focused on the design,...