Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 41, No. 4, December

A New Class of Auditory Warning Signals for Complex Systems: Auditory Icons
This simulator-based study examined conventional auditory warnings (tonal, nonverbal sounds) and auditory icons (representational, nonverbal sounds), alone and in combination with a dash-mounted visual display, to present information about impending...
Aurally Aided Visual Search in Three-Dimensional Space
We conducted an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of spatial audio displays on target acquisition performance. Participants performed a visual search task with and without the aid of a spatial audio display. Potential target locations ranged...
Benefits of Color Coding Weapons Symbology for an Airborne Helmet-Mounted Display
We assessed the advantages of a color-coded weapons symbology for a helmet-mounted display over monochrome symbology by measuring military pilots' performance while they flew air-to-air combat in a simulator. The pilots fired missiles significantly...
Effect of Lifting Belts on Trunk Muscle Activation during a Suddenly Applied Load
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health suggests there is insufficient biomechanical or epidemiological evidence to recommend the use of back belts in industry. From a biomechanical perspective, previous work suggests that lifting...
Effects of Mission Rehearsal Simulation on Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition
Traditionally military aviators have prepared for air-to-ground bombing missions with maps and aerial photographs of their targets. Mission rehearsal systems augment these media by allowing pilots to view simulated ingress to their target, as seen...
Foot Flare and Foot Axis
Most commercial footwear is designed and manufactured on a curved last, although the amount of curvature of the last and the turning point of the last centerline have not been formally determined. In this study, we used principal component analysis...
Good Vibrations: Tactile Feedback in Support of Attention Allocation and Human-Automation Coordination in Event-Driven Domains
Observed breakdowns in human-machine communication can be explained, in part, by the nature of current automation feedback, which relies heavily on focal visual attention. Such feedback is not well suited for capturing attention in case of unexpected...
Information Structure and the Relative Efficacy of Tables and Graphs
Users and system designers often prefer to display information with graphs rather than with tables. However, empirical studies that compared task performance with the two display types frequently revealed either an advantage of tables over graphs or...
Target Cuing in Visual Search: The Effects of Conformality and Display Location on the Allocation of Visual Attention
Two experiments were performed to examine how frame of reference (world-referenced vs. screen-referenced) and target expectancy can modulate the effects of target cuing in directing attention for see-through helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). In the first...
The Design of a Visual Display for the Presentation of Statistical Quality Control Information to Operators on the Plant Floor
We applied human-centered design methodologies to enhance the presentation of product quality information to operators on a manufacturing plant floor. First, an initial visual display concept that integrated a pictorial representation of a product...
The Persuasiveness of Synthetic Speech versus Human Speech
Is computer-synthesized speech as persuasive as the human voice when presenting an argument? After completing an attitude pretest, 193 participants were randomly assigned to listen to a persuasive appeal under three conditions: a high-quality synthesized...
Work Organization, Job Stress, and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders
Recent studies indicate potential links among work organization, job stress, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). In this paper we propose several pathways for a theoretical relationship between job stress and WRMDs. These pathways highlight...
Wrist and Forearm Posture from Typing on Split and Vertically Inclined Computer Keyboards
A study was conducted on 90 experienced office workers to determine how commercially available alternative computer keyboards affected wrist and forearm posture. The alternative keyboards tested had the QWERTY layout of keys and were of three designs:...
Young Novice Driver Subtypes: Relationship to High-Risk Behavior, Traffic Accident Record, and Simulator Driving Performance
Two studies were undertaken to obtain empirical support for the existence of driver subtypes in the young novice driver population. In Study 1, 198 participants (55% male) aged 16 to 19 completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Five novice...