Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 44, No. 4, Winter

Analytically Derived Three-Dimensional Reach Volumes Based on Multijoint Movements
INTRODUCTION When designing workplaces or control panels, one should place controls within the reach of the operator's arm or foot to ensure ease of reach and to optimize human performance (Chaffin & Andersson, 1991; Das & Behara, 1998;...
A Statistical Method for Predicting Automobile Driving Posture
INTRODUCTION The design of passenger car interiors is now commonly facilitated by the use of three-dimensional (3-D) human representations that can be manipulated in a computer environment (Porter, Case, Freer, & Bonney, 1993). These computer-aided-design...
Color and Defective Color Vision as Factors in the Conspicuity of Signs and Signals
INTRODUCTION Research on factors affecting the conspicuity of signs and signals, especially the conspicuity of road traffic control devices, has been summarized by Jenkins and Cole (1986) and the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE,...
Concordance between Task and Interface Rotational and Translational Control Improves Ground Vehicle Performance
INTRODUCTION This paper describes an experimental attempt to measure the impact on human performance of the relationship between a set of motor tasks and two different physical system interfaces. The surficial intent of the experiment was to...
Decisions, Decisions: Analysis of Age, Cohort, and Time of Testing on Framing of Risky Decision Options
INTRODUCTION Effective decision making in a variety of uncertain conditions is a daily challenge faced by adults of all ages. For instance, decisions to wear or not to wear uncomfortable safety goggles while painting, financial decisions to retain...
Designing for Adaptation to Novelty and Change: Functional Information, Emergent Feature Graphics, and Higher-Level Control
INTRODUCTION The very idea of deliberately designing to help workers adapt to novelty and change in complex work domains seems paradoxical. On the one hand, there is a growing recognition that the need to support worker adaptation is increasing...
Determination and Evaluation of Acceptable Force Limits in Single-Digit Tasks
INTRODUCTION An important goal of ergonomics design is ensuring that workers have sufficient physical strength to perform the required tasks. It is usually of additional interest that tasks be performed without excessive discomfort and to levels...
DWI Convictions Linked to a Higher Risk of Alcohol-Related Aircraft Accidents
INTRODUCTION Analysis of the risk of an alcohol-related accident among pilots with a driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) conviction is an important topic in human factors and aviation safety. Although most accidents do not involve pilots with DWI...
Effect of Grip Span on Lateral Pinch Grip Strength
INTRODUCTION Repetitive, awkward, high-force pinch grip exertions have been related to fatigue, discomfort, and injury to the hand/wrist complex in industrial populations. In a study of sewing machine operators, T. J. Armstrong and Chaffin (1979)...
Effects of a Biocybernetic System on Vigilance Performance
INTRODUCTION Adaptive automation refers to systems in which decisions regarding initiation, cessation, and mode of operation are shared between the human operator and the system in real time (Parasuraman, 2000; Scerbo, 1996). Adaptive systems...
Factors Affecting the Usefulness of Impenetrable Interface Element Borders
INTRODUCTION Graphical user interfaces (GUIs; e.g., Windows, MacOS, Linux) allow users to interact directly with files and applications within a computer system. In order to select a particular system component (e.g., an application), a user...
Laser Projection versus a CRT Display in the Visual Perception of Aircraft Aspect
INTRODUCTION Fighter pilots can identify an aircraft several kilometers away by vision alone. They can also distinguish its direction of flight and the rate of its turn. The direction of an aircraft's flight relative to an observer is known as...
Variable-Resolution Displays: A Theoretical, Practical, and Behavioral Evaluation
INTRODUCTION One of the factors determining the quality of a visual display is the presented level of detail. The detail that can be rendered in real time for most applications is limited by the available processing power (e.g., in virtual reality...