Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 44, No. 1, Spring

Agreeing with Automated Diagnostic Aids: A Study of Users' Concurrence Strategies
INTRODUCTION Human performance in complex systems, such as nuclear power and aviation operations, is marred by a history of operator error. This fact is attributable, at least in part, to the ever-increasing amount and intricacy of information...
Contrast Sensitivity in a Dynamic Environment: Effect of Target Conditions and Visual Impairment
INTRODUCTION Over the past 150 years, numerous tests have been designed to measure critical aspects of practical visual functioning: acuity, color vision, stereoscopic vision, light sensitivity, flicker sensitivity, phoria, and so forth. Arguably...
Control Performance with Three Translational Degrees of Freedom
INTRODUCTION Simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) is required in many control interfaces. Examples include teleoperation, cursor control in computer-aided design and manufacturing software, and virtual environments (e.g.,...
Ecological Interface Design: Progress and Challenges
INTRODUCTION The construction of complex sociotechnical systems has led to a greater demand for knowledge workers, people whose primary function is to engage in intellectual work that requires discretionary decision making. Routine activities...
Effect of a Concurrent Auditory Task on Visual Search Performance in a Driving-Related Image-Flicker Task
INTRODUCTION Over the past 10 years there has been an explosive worldwide growth in the use of cellular telephones. In the United States, for example, the number of users increased to more than 95 million in 2000 (more than 30% of the population)....
Impact of Aviation Highway-in-the-Sky Displays on Pilot Situation Awareness
INTRODUCTION Recently, a great deal of attention has been given to the incorporation of a highway-in-the-sky (HITS) display as the primary cockpit flight display. A HITS (also called "pathway") display provides course guidance to the pilot using...
Relation between Glare and Driving Performance
INTRODUCTION Automobile headlamps provide illumination for driving that enables efficient lane keeping, detection of potential obstacles such as other vehicles and pedestrians, and perception of traffic signs. There is an inherent conflict between...
Surface Textures Improve the Robustness of Stereoscopic Depth Cues
INTRODUCTION A wide variety of computer-mediated tasks require users to accurately perceive and discriminate among the three-dimensional (3D) positions of rendered objects. Depth, the spatial component in the direction away from the viewer, is...
The Effects of Work Pace on Within-Participant and Between-Participant Keying Force, Electromyography, and Fatigue
INTRODUCTION Cumulative trauma disorders are the most costly and severe disorders occurring in office work environments (Lyon, 1992). The number of recorded cases of repetitive motion injuries increased from 34 700 in 1984 to 372 300 in 1999...
The Far-Anchor Effect: Errors in the Perception of Motion and Implications for Aviation Safety
INTRODUCTION To fly aircraft safely and effectively, pilots must properly use visual information about the relative positions of both stationary and moving objects in the environment. Unfortunately, making these visual judgments, including judgments...
The Perceived Urgency of Speech Warnings: Semantics versus Acoustics
INTRODUCTION Auditory warnings are used throughout industry, aviation, and medicine as a means of improving safety and performance. One ergonomic approach to modern auditory warning design is the guidance provided by Patterson (1982) and the...
The Perceived Utility of Human and Automated Aids in a Visual Detection Task
INTRODUCTION Information technology is changing the nature of work by providing real-time access to more relevant, accurate, and timely information than was previously possible. This has drastically increased efforts to design and develop automated...