Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 44, No. 2, Summer

Collision Warning Timing, Driver Distraction, and Driver Response to Imminent Rear-End Collisions in a High-Fidelity Driving Simulator
INTRODUCTION Rear-end collisions account for approximately 28% of all crashes, resulting in 157 million vehicle hours of delay annually, or roughly one third of all crash-caused delays (National Safety Council, 1996). Driver inattention has been...
Differences between Vehicle Lateral Displacement on the Road and in a Fixed-Base Simulator
INTRODUCTION The aim of this study is to investigate vehicle lateral displacement while driving on curved and straight rural road sections on an actual road environment and in a fixed-base driving simulator. Driver behavior in terms of lateral...
Ecological Interface Design for Pasteurizer II: A Process Description of Semantic Mapping
INTRODUCTION The conceptual foundations of ecological interface design (EID) have been described in various places (Vicente & Rasmussen, 1990, 1992). Many evaluations have been performed of ecological interfaces against nonecological interfaces...
Effects of an In-Vehicle Collision Avoidance Warning System on Short- and Long-Term Driving Performance
INTRODUCTION In the United States, rear-end collisions represent approximately 30% of all car crashes on public roads (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1999). Two major causes of such accidents are driver inattention and failure...
Experimental Comparisons of Data Entry by Automated Speech Recognition, Keyboard, and Mouse
INTRODUCTION Two characteristics of any mode of data entry are crucial to determining its efficacy: speed of entry and error rate. At first glance the speed of human speech would suggest that automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology must...
Intelligibility of Speech in a Virtual 3-D Environment
INTRODUCTION The number of simultaneously active sound feeds often limits the ability of human operators to interpret and respond to auditory messages in electronic communication systems (e.g., telecommunications). Cockpits and air traffic control...
LCD versus CRT Displays: A Comparison of Visual Search Performance for Colored Symbols
INTRODUCTION This paper describes an experiment examining the relative effectiveness of two display technologies: a liquid-crystal display (LCD) and a conventional cathode-ray tube (CRT) of similar resolution and size. Within the naval community,...
Pilot Maneuver Choice and Workload in Free Flight
INTRODUCTION One proposed change to the national airspace system, designed to increase its capacity, involves allocating more authority over flight path selection to the individual pilot. This proposed increase in pilot authority has been termed...
Psychophysical Assessments of Image-Sensor Fused Imagery
INTRODUCTION Sensor fusion combines images from multiple sensors into a single display, with the aim of enhancing operators' target detection and situational awareness in high-workload environments. Military and civilian applications include...
Right-Handers and Americans Favor Turning to the Right
INTRODUCTION Navigation, such as the choice of a pedestrian to turn to the right or left, is typically modeled as a complex perceptual and cognitive activity that requires an intricate integration of current and past stimuli (Cuqlock-Knopp &...
The Role of Situation Assessment and Flight Experience in Pilots' Decisions to Continue Visual Flight Rules Flight into Adverse Weather
INTRODUCTION In an analysis of general aviation (GA) accidents between 1990 and 1997, Goh and Wiegmann (2001a) found that the fatality rate in accidents involving visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC),...
Use of a Fixed-Base Driving Simulator to Evaluate the Effects of Experience and PC-Based Risk Awareness Training on Drivers' Decisions
INTRODUCTION Historically, 16-year-olds have been overinvolved in fatal crashes. Surprisingly, this overinvolvement has almost doubled in the last 20 years. For every 100 000 licensed 16-year-old drivers, there were 19 driver deaths in 1 975...