Schole: A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education

Articles

Vol. 24, Annual

Student Perceptions of Teacher Evaluations: A Proposed Model
Background Student Evaluations of Teachers (SETs) began in the 1920's (Doyle, 1983) and remain prevalent in most colleges and universities today. The use of SETs encompasses formative data for faculty such as course improvement (Hobson & Talbot,...
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The Tie That Binds? A Case Study of Student Perceptions of Their Recreation-Related Majors
Many college students begin their parks, recreation, tourism, therapeutic recreation, sports management, or outdoor recreation major (referred to hereafter as recreation-related major) with a narrow view of their academic path. These students usually...
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Examining Social Capital in the Conference Setting: A Case Study of College Student Participants
Introduction National Parks and Recreation Association (NRPA) Congress is a major annual conference in the field of Parks and Recreation in North America. One purpose is to bring professionals together to share and exchange ideas and to celebrate...
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An Ethnographic Autobiography of a Short-Term Study Abroad Experience
Introduction Parks, recreation, and tourism students are increasingly facing a post-academic environment that requires a solid understanding in an extremely diverse array of disciplines. Students emerging from parks, recreation, and tourism programs...
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Perceptions of Ethical and Unethical Behavior in Recreation Research
Introduction Research is an integral component to the advancement of any profession. Through directed research efforts, professions establish unique bodies of knowledge that serve to further understanding of phenomenon and provide direction for...
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To Philosophize or Not to Philosophize: An Issue on Leisure Programming for Baby Boomers
Introduction Philosophy is a funny sort of thing; we say we use it, but in reality, we just are not sure what to do with it. In recreation and leisure studies, we study philosophy, write personal and professional philosophical statements, and often...
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Exploring Students' Experiences Learning Leisure Education through an Inter-University Virtual Learning Environment
During the 2007 Society of Recreation and Park Educators Conference, a session titled "Exploring Conversational Writing and Learning" was presented. The presenters described an initiative that involved students from two classes at Clemson University...
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Scaffolding: A Promising Approach to Fostering Critical Thinking
Teaching students how to think rather than what to think is a primary goal of higher education (Daly, 2001; Kronholm, 1996; Myllykangas & Foose, 2007), yet many of our undergraduate students struggle when asked to engage in critical thinking. Thinking...
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Transforming the Classroom: Including Undergraduate Students in Program Evaluation
Introduction Student evaluations are used across university campuses as a measure of a teacher's ability to teach. Student standardized evaluations provide instructors with important feedback from the student's point-of-view and allow administrators...
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Creativity in the Classroom: Students "Picture" Serious Leisure
Introduction Serious leisure sounds like a contradiction; however, it has become an important leisure concept. Stebbins (1982) coined the term 'serious leisure' to explain a phenomenon which differentiates one type leisure from its non-serious,...
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Event Management: An Experiential Learning Approach
Over the course of the past two years, an experiential learning course in event management, in which the students plan and execute a "real" event, has been modified and refined. The events have been significant in size and scope and have provided a...
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Don't Just Talk about Needs Assessment in Recreation Programming, Do It!
Introduction Soliciting participant input before implementing a recreation program, service, or event is an accepted step in the program planning process (Allan, 2000; Edginton, Hudson, Dieser, & Edginton, 2004; "Recreation Program," 1953; Rossman...
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Enhanced Academic Advisement with Online Learning Management Systems
Introduction Often academic advisement is a central role and responsibility for faculty, particularly in programs that are housed in professional schools like recreation and leisure studies. In these cases, many faculty strive to use academic advisement...
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Howling Wolves: Active Experiential Learning in Event Management
Introduction Disciplines like recreation, parks, and tourism face the constant pressure of teaching students the theories and concepts of the discipline as well as developing necessary practical skills. This concept is often referred to as the balancing...
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Reflective Self Study: A Tool for Understanding Leisure Behavior
Introduction The theory of constructivism suggests that individuals construct knowledge by incorporating personal experience into an existing theoretical framework (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). For example, teachers can facilitate experiences in...
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Video Assessment: A High Tech Approach to Teaching Leadership Skills in Recreation
The Use of Video Assessment to Teach Leadership Skills The importance of recreation leadership is evident by the national accreditation standards attached to this particular skill. As such, many universities require a leadership class as part of...
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Vol. 23, Annual

Editorial
As the 2008 presidential election draws near, we are hearing a lot about change; and we suppose that is the one constant-change. As our country faces a change in leadership, so did Schole. In the fall of 2007 we were selected by the Society of Park...
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Consider the Kirtland's Warbler
Abstract This paper challenges the conventional wisdom of departments of parks and recreation taking sport management under their "wing." Based on a review of the sport management literature and a polling of sport management and park and recreation...
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Comment on Dustin and Schwab Paper "Consider the Kirtland's Warbler"
As the current and former heads of a parks and recreation department that has gone down the sport management road, we agree with many of the concerns Dustin and Schwab have articulated. However, we beg to differ with the universality and completeness...
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Comment on Dustin and Schwab Paper "Consider the Kirtland's Warbler"
Dan Dustin and Keri Schwab (this issue) raise serious concerns about the inclusion of sport management curriculum content into traditional park and recreation departments. They ask: "Is sport management the 'brown-headed cowbird' to park and recreation...
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Comment on Dustin and Schwab Article "Consider the Kirtland's Warbler"
In responding to Dustin and Schwab's paper (this issue) in the tradition of reflexive thought, I will provide a context for my comments by describing my educational background. My Bachelor's degree is in physical education from a British university....
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Comment on Dustin and Schwab Article "Consider the Kirtland's Warbler"
The article by Dustin and Schwab (this issue), "Consider the Kirtland's Warbler," raised several concerns about the relationship between park and recreation management and sport management. Specifically, I would like to address the concern raised by...
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Reflections on Inter-Species Parasitism: A Rejoinder to Gibson, Howard, McDonald, Wellman, and Rea
We read the reactions to our "Kirtland's Warbler" article with great interest, and we thank professors Gibson, Howard, McDonald, Wellman, and Rea for their thoughtful responses to it. We will continue employing the Kirtland's warbler analogy in this...
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The Experience of Learning/teaching Qualitative Research Approaches: An Ethnographic Autobiography
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to use reflexive methodology to describe the emotions and experiences of doctoral students and a professor who collaboratively conducted a research study using triangulated qualitative research data. The study...
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"I'm Present, 'A' Please": A Case Study Examining Grading Issues in a Recreation Curriculum
Abstract Despite extensive research, grading and the potential for grade inflation remain areas of concern within higher education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to obtain collective understandings regarding grading and pressures...
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Using Wheelchair Sports to Complement Disability Awareness Curriculum among College Students
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a campus-wide intramural wheelchair sports program on attitudes toward people with disabilities. The sample consisted of 126 participants at a large, western university. A quasi-experimental...
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Accreditation and Educational Quality: Are Students in Accredited Programs More Academically Engaged?
Abstract There has been a great deal of debate regarding the value of program accreditation. Two research questions guided this study: 1) are students enrolled in accredited parks, recreation, and leisure programs more academically engaged than...
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"Take Back Your Time": Facilitating a Student Led Teach-In
Abstract "Take Back Your Time" (TBYT) is a movement founded by John De Graaf (2003) that exposes the issues of time poverty and overwork in the United States and Canada. This article features the process whereby undergraduate students study De Graaf's...
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"Operation Recreation: Adventure Challenge": Teaching Programming through Problem-Based Learning Theory
Abstract We describe a semester-long teaching/learning approach employed in three recreation programming classes at the University of Utah that incorporated aspects of Problem-based Learning (PBL), theory-based programming concepts, and practical...
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A Day Hike Designed to Promote Environmental Literacy
Abstract This paper introduces a theoretical framework and practical means of teaching environmental literacy through the explanation of a structured day hike experience with university students along the Bruce Trail in the Niagara Region of Ontario,...
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Parlamentary Pastries: Learning Parlamentary Procedure through Cookies
Abstract Parliamentary procedure is an integral part of the business of many recreation organizations, but students often perceive it to be difficult and irrelevant to their professional preparation. The activity uses the creation of a cookie recipe...
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Teaching Students to Analyze Agency Actions Via a NEPA Analysis Approach
Abstract Future recreation professionals need the ability to analyze the effects of proposed management actions and stakeholder concerns to make good decisions, maintain public support, and comply with state and federal laws. Importantly, when federal...
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Vol. 22, Annual

Editorial
Welcome to Volume Twenty-two of SCHOLE! The theme of this issue is teaching and includes a variety of resources examining how to evaluate teaching as well as resources to improve your teaching effectiveness. The issue includes one invited article,...
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Establishing a National Board for the Peer Review of Scholarly Teaching: A Proposal for the Society of Park and Recreation Educators
Abstract This proposal calls for SPRE to establish a National Board for the Peer Review of Scholarly Teaching in Park, Recreation, and Tourism Management. The goal is to establish a mechanism for increasing the weight given to scholarly teaching...
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A Systematic Approach to Documenting Teaching Effectiveness
Abstract Faculty in higher education are well-versed in their two primary job responsibilities of teaching and research with service often a distant third. Although the evaluation of research is reflected in one's publication record, the evaluation...
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Program Effectiveness and Curriculum Competencies of the Leisure Youth and Human Services Division at a Midwestern University: Does the Curriculum Meet the Needs of the Leisure Profession?
Abstract This quantitative study evaluated the effectiveness of the Leisure, Youth and Human Services (LYHS) curriculum and the cultural climate offered within a Department of Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Services (HPELS) at a Midwestern...
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Carrying Capacity Candy Bars. an In-Class Activity
The topic of Resource Management at our college usually evokes an image of long lists and outlines on the blackboard (or whiteboard) of a variety of government agencies and structures. This is generally presented in such a way as to guarantee student...
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Aristotle's Forms of Proof: The Keys to Teaching Recreation Marketing
Introduction Aristotle was born in 384 BC in Greece. One of the many writings attributed to Aristotle is Rhetoric. In Book I, Section 1356, Aristotle writes of three forms of proof: logos, pathos and ethos (Roberts, 1954). Over 2300 years later,...
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An Experiential Approach to Understanding Physical Disability
Introduction Increasing academic knowledge of theoretical concepts related to leisure and physical disabilities is an important part of most leisure studies' and therapeutic recreation curricula. Developing experiences that apply the theoretical...
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Designing Recreation Facilities without a Drawing Board
Keywords: Design, Planning, Facilities Facility Design Without Drawing Boards Introduction: Many "more mature" parks and recreation educators, such as the author, learned facility design using drawing hoards, 2H pencils and T-squares. Although...
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Using Wiki to Explore the Leisure Service Delivery Systems
Introduction According to Prensky (2001), "Our students have changed radically. Today's students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach." The students in Recreation programs today have grown up in a digital age. Because...
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Using Personal Behavior Change to Teach the Therapeutic Recreation Process
Introduction The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the therapeutic recreation process can be taught through an assignment that fosters change in personal behaviors. Examples of how students assess the target behavior, develop an individual...
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Playing the Hand You Are Dealt
Introduction "You got to know when to hold 'em, Know when to fold 'em, know when to walk away and know when to run." (Schlitz, 1978). As the lyrics to the song the Gambler suggest, life is like playing a card game. A hand is dealt to each person...
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Building Critical Thinking One Article at a Time
Key Terms: Knowledge mapping, critical thinking, active learning, multimodal learning, trends and issues As entry and mid-level managers, students graduating from college must understand how to track current trends and issues pertaining to their...
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Leisure Pioneers Up, Up and Away
Introduction It is commonly acknowledged that an understanding of the past is fundamental to an understanding of the present. However, historical inquiry is not simply a presentation of facts but to search for an interpretation of the past. The...
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Engaging the Online Learner Via Experiential and Service-Learning Activities
Introduction As the world of web-based distance learning or more commonly known, online learning moves forward in bits and bytes, instructors may struggle with how to ensure that students learning online via the requisite tools (i.e., electronic...
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The S.M.A.R.T.Er Approach to Teaching Goals and Objectives
Introduction To develop and implement a successful program, recreation programmers should establish goals and objectives that indicate desired results of programs. Program goals and objectives help link an agency's mission with the daily work of...
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Show Me the Money: A New Twist on "Pay to Participate"
Introduction Almost every college or university syllabus in the United States contains a section addressing class participation. Expectations for participation may range from students simply attending class (mere attendance); through adopting roles...
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Learning to Articulate One's Professional Philosophy: Use of the Warrior Exam
Introduction Testing is one component of the education process where students and faculty can find common ground: it is usually stressful, often unfair and occasionally unnecessary. Petress (2004) identified examinations as one of college's "most...
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Warren, R., Rea, P., & Payne, S. (2007). Park and Recreation Maintenance Management
Warren, R., Rea, P., & Payne, S. (2007). Park and recreation maintenance management. Champaign, IL: Sagamore Publishing. 285 pages, $54.95, ISNB-13:978-1-57167-568-2 The book provides a comprehensive overview of park and recreation maintenance...
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Valentine, John V. (2006) Planning and Organizing Group Activities in Social Recreation
Valentine, John V. (2006) Planning and Organizing Group Activities in Social Recreation, State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc. 108 pp. $17.95 ISBN-10: 1-892132-61-3 In Planning and Organizing Group Activities in Social Recreation, John V....
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