Journal of Social and Psychological Sciences

Articles

Vol. 6, No. 1, January

Review: A Face-Specific N170?-The Controversy Goes On
Event Related Potential studies of face processing Event Related Potential (ERP) studies on face recognition have isolated an early occipito-temporal negative component (N1) which is often associated with visual processing and encoding (see Bentin...
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For How Long Can Psychology Maintain Its 'Scientific' Status?
As an initial starting point it would be useful acknowledge that positivist psychologists hold the ideological position that Psychology should strive towards acquiring objectively measurable data about human behaviour (Sloan, 2000). Moreover, traditional...
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Connectionist and Dual Route-Models of Reading: What Insights Can Be Gained by Synthesizing Both Models?
A brief background to connectionist modelling As an initial starting point it would be useful to briefly outline what connectionist modelling entails. The connectionist approach emerged through developments in computer science, specifically the...
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Review: The Neuroanatomical Substrates of Cognitive Control
Top-down and Bottom-up mechanisms involved in selective attention Although not identical, a somewhat similar distinction to automatic and controlled mechanisms can be made between bottom-up and top-down processing, which also attempts to investigate...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, July

Looking toward the Future: Predicting Retirement Satisfaction
Many retirees experience a decrease in life satisfaction after retirement. One explanation for the dissatisfaction is that retirement was not as one had expected (i.e., feelings about retirement were inaccurately predicted). Planning for retirement...
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What Makes a Difference in On-Line Impressions? Avatars, Attribution, and Cognitive Processes
In an on-line chat room, users encounter their conversation partners in a casual manner and interact through the exchange of messages usually without knowing each other. During the conversation, the interacting subjects form the first impressions of...
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An Alternative Model of Self-Forgiveness
Throughout life, people inevitably transgress by offending others, themselves, or a religious/spiritual figure by failing to uphold others', personal, or spiritual standards. When transgressors have empathy for their victims, take responsibility, and...
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Parental Support as Mediator between Optimism and Depression in Early Adolescents
At the beginning of 21st century depression is considered one of the major mental health problems. However, the data are often contradictory with respect to the prevalence of the phenomenon: depression may range from about 10-30% in the general population...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, January

Early Academic Self Concepts and the Racial Achievement Gap
The aim of this essay is to examine the racial achievement gap in American education through the lens of Erik Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development: industry vs. inferiority (Erikson, 1950). To set the stage, I will argue that the well-documented...
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How Egyptian Children See 25th January Revolution as Reflected in Their Drawings
Drawing for children is an expression of the inner self and a communication method Children draw "what they know" in their own style. In other words, the perception functions, sensibility/emotions and motor functions interact, and there, the factor...
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Reflections on Nigeria's Foreign Policy
INTRODUCTION The study intend to assess perspectives on Nigeria's foreign policy from the year 1960 till 2007. Our curiosity and historical inquisitiveness at this inquiry is predicated on four major strands. First, the beginning of the period of...
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Vol. 4, No. 2, July

Effect of Gender and Home Environment on Educational Aspirations of Indian Adolescents
INTRODUCTION Educational Aspirations refer to the early impressions of one's own academic abilities and the highest level of education an individual expects to attain has also been linked to academic achievement. Today's modern society expects everyone...
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Attachment and Grit: Exploring Possible Contributions of Attachment Styles (from Past and Present Life) to the Adult Personality Construct of Grit
Introduction A newly conceptualized personality trait known as grit (Duckworth et al., 2007) has been recently validated to have significant long-term impacts on perseverance and resolve. Past research surrounding grit has focused largely on its...
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The Effect of Gender and Literacy on Executive Planning of Epileptic Patients
Introduction Epilepsy constitutes the second most categories of Neurological Disorders, following Stroke and mood problems (Carlson, 1992). Each year an average of 15,500 people learns that they have epilepsy, 44% are diagnosed before the age of...
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Women Empowrement: A Reality or Myth
Introduction "The world of humanity has two wings one is women and other man. Not until both wings are equally developed can the bird fly" This statement clearly focused on the importance of women in our society. Women constitute an important segment...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, January

Mediating Role of Psychosocial Factors on the Relationship between Downsizing and Employees' Commitment to Work among Federal Civil Servants in Nigeria
The study of employees' commitment in the aftermath of downsizing exercise becomes important because organizations are required to maintain a core of committed individuals who will sustain life in organizations after a reduction in the work force....
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Women Empowerment through SHGs-A Case Study of Jharkhand State in India
The total world population comprises of 50% women. As far as the social status of women is concerned it has been seen that in the Indian context in most states women are not treated as equal to men in most places. This gender discrimination is very...
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Post-Radicalisation Identity: Understanding 'Collective Identity' within Radical Islamist Groups
To an outsider, the need to belong to Hizb ut-Tahrir (1) (henceforth, HT) appears to be somewhat irrational because involvement can lead to considerable disadvantage. Abid Javaid, for example, was dismissed from his Home Office job after a BBC television...
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Vol. 3, No. 2, July

Ear Disease in Hamlet
"To spleet the ears of the groundlings"--Hamlet In the historical moment in which Shakespeare's Hamlet was composed, the ear was coded as an admonishing organ, the avenue for hearing sermons. Though Protestant preachers in Shakespeare's day attacked...
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Gender Differences in Emotional Intelligence among Indian Adolescents
Emotions are central to the issues of human survival and adaptation. They motivate the development of moral behavior, which lies at the very root of civilization. Emotions influence empathic and altruistic behavior, and they play a role in the creative...
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To Think or Not to Think-A Phenomenological and Psychoanalytic Perspective on Experience, Thinking and Creativity
"Thoughts are a nuisance," says Bion's patient in Learning from Experience; "I don't want them" (1962b:34-35). "Thinking", writes Arendt in The Life of the Mind, is "equally dangerous to all creeds and, by itself, does not bring forth any new creed"...
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The Housewives Biggest Groups in Inactive Labor Force: Case of Turkey
1. Introduction: A labor market has been defined as an area within which mutual adjustment of supply and demand for labor are carried out. It is observed that there is a difference adjustment supply and demand for labor by sex. Therefore, gender is...
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Vol. 3, No. 1, January

Psychological and Social Impacts of Halitosis: A Review
Introduction Olfaction, which is the special sense of smell, has a role in the enjoyment and selection of food, defence and sexual behaviours especially in lower animal. Today it is widely recognised that the sense of smell is closely linked to...
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Co-Relational Study of Body Types and Fundamental Neurotic Reactions among Adolescents of Urban Sector of Peshawar, Pakistan
1. INTRODUCTION The potential effect of body type on personality and psychological well being has been a source of concern and researcher interest since the evolution of human beings. Many scholars believe that behaviour is related to individual's...
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Modeling the Processes of Social-Pediatric Service: Innovative Approach in Social Work
The tradition of children health protection was established by Catherine II in 1763 while signing the Manifest about founding in Moscow the Imperial Moscow Foster Home, which became the Science Children Health Center of Russian Medical Academy of Science...
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Review of Helen Hackett's: Shakespeare and Elizabeth: The Meeting of Two Myths: Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2009
REVIEW Helen Hackett appropriately uses the word 'myths' to characterise the apotheosis of the author William Shakespeare into a cultural deity and Elizabeth Tudor, his Queen, into an icon of virginity with ambiguous masculine/feminine powers. Hackett...
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Editorial: The Fragmentation of Social and Psychological Science
The division between Psychology and Sociology into increasingly smaller fields of expertise has made communication between both disciplines virtually impossible. Suddenly, these two subjects seem to have lost the ability to talk to each other. It is...
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Home-Grown Terror in a Globalized World
One of the recent news threads to have emerged in the mainstream media coverage of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq is the spate of home-grown terrorists--Americans who have attempted to or succeeded in perpetrating violence against the United States...
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Conceptualizing Non-Governmentals: Still Searching for Conceptual Clarity
Introduction In 1945, the United Nations (UN) coined the term "Non-Governmental " (NGO) and since then, there has been a continuous proliferation of NGOs particularly due to government and market failure in both Northern and Southern countries (Edwards...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, July

Coping Strategies of Street Children in Nigeria
The past few decades have seen the proliferation of street children in Nigeria. This is evident in the number of children seen on the street scavenging, begging, hawking and soliciting. Oloko (1999) expressed that the phenomenon of street children...
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Gender Differences in Perceptions of Home Environment among Indian Adolescents
Introduction Children grow up in several environments. Home, school, and community are the setting for social and intellectual experiences from which they acquire and develop the skills, attitudes and attachments which characterize them as individuals...
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The Native Impact: Traditional Societies and Indian Forest Conservation
Since the turn of the 20th century, there has been significant industrial development across the world. This development has nearly exhausted the global forest resources. So much so that after 1961, 500 million hectares of tropical forests have been...
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Cognitive-Emotional Interactions: Evidence from Sad Facial Expressions
Introduction This article aims to elucidate how cognition and emotion can be united to understand the cognitive-emotional interaction occurring within the brain. The interactions between emotion and cognition could be defined at two levels namely,...
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The Relationship between Interdependent Self-Construal and Psychological Wellbeing: Mediating Roles of Important Human Values
Human values or value systems, which are about things we attach importance to, go a long way to influence our overall behaviours. Indeed, knowledge of what an individual or a group of individuals holds as important , and of the degree of importance...
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Vol. 2, No. 1, January

Editorial: 'Defragmenting' Mind and Thought
Contrary to what dominant approaches in psychology assume, there is a dimension to human behaviour and experience that may not be objectively measurable. Favouring a 'pure' objectivist epistemology quite often leads to dismissing the importance of...
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Stress: Sham Epidemic or Pathway to Ill Health? A Sociological Analysis of a Contested Concept
Introduction Stress is 'one of the most pervasive metaphors for personal and collective suffering', according to Helman (2000:202). His insight is illuminating, given the lack of a comprehensive and widely agreed definition of stress (Willemsen...
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The Novel as a Work of Mourning (Trauerarbeit)-A Performative Response to Loss: Reading William Faulkner's as I Lay Dying, Absalom, Absalom!, and Requiem for a Nun as 'Prose Elegies'-An Alternative to Postmodern Melancholy
The Novel as a Work of Mourning (trauerarbeit)--a Performative Response to Loss: Reading William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying, Absalom, Absalom!, and Requiem for a Nun as 'Prose Elegies'--An Alternative to Postmodern Melancholy. "To elegize is to sing...
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Walter Benjamin and Psychoanalysis: On Dream and Revolution in Benjamin
Introduction This article deals with Walter Benjamin's interpretation of psychoanalysis. Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) is known as a member of Frankfurt School. The Frankfurt School is sometimes considered as a research group that attempted the synthesis...
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Cultural Narcissism Is Not a Generational Phenomenon
This paper was presented at the: International and Interdisciplinary Conference of Human Rights, Individualism and Globalization. Sponsored by the Center for Spirituality, Ethics and Global Awareness Bethany College School of Arts and Sciences (April...
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Vol. 1, No. 2, July

Additive or Multiplicative Perceptual Noise? Two Equivalent Forms of the ANCHOR Model
Introduction Ever since the seminal work of Thurstone (1927) subjective continua occupy a prominent place in psychological theory. This notion captures in a convenient and general way two complementary aspects of the perceptual system: its systematicity...
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Women Executives in the Gaming Industry: Can They Break through the Glass Ceiling?
Despite comprising almost 50% of the total U.S. labor force, and 51.3% of employees in the U.S. casino industry (Price, Waterhouse, & Coopers, 2003), women are still underrepresented in high levels of business management. (According to Price,...
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Beyond Therapy: Autonomist Movements against "Mental Illness"
For autonomists, "mental illness" diagnoses and various psy practices are social constructions. Survivor and client movements provide spaces for examining those constructions and developing alternative constructions. These spaces can involve actual...
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Coping Measures of Patients with Chronic Illness in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution
Introduction In Nigeria, chronic illness may be responsible for 24 percent of all deaths in the year 2005 and the situation may become worse by 2015(WHO, 2005). Some of the common chronic illness such as diabetics, heart disease, stroke and type...
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Taking Stock of the Biopsychosocial Model in the Field of 'Mental Health Care'
This paper will review the legacy of the bio-psychosocial model in the field of 'mental health care'. The latter, placed in speech marks because it is typically more about responding to presumed mental disorder than promoting mental health, can...
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What Contributions Have Biological Approaches Made to Our Understanding of Gender and Sexuality?
Biologists believe that the source of human behaviour resides inside of us and that the differences between males and females can actually be found in our body components such as cell compositions, set up and anatomical parts such as differences...
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Vol. 1, No. 1, January

Editorial: Dialoguing across Disciplines
In the quest for understanding the nature of reality and the best way of studying it, knowledge is 'fragmented' into an array of expertise areas. This process, may provide greater depth of analysis of any given study subject. Nevertheless, such...
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Body Double as Body Politic: Psychosocial Myth and Cultural Binary in Fatal Attraction
When Fatal Attraction appeared in 1987 it was generally dismissed as a formulaic Hollywood horror movie. The narrative is all too predictable (particularly for those familiar with Adrian Lyne's other work): a happily married Manhattan attorney Dan...
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Are Men 'Cleverer' Than Women? Deconstructing the Dogma of Female Intellectual Inferiority
Traditional psychologists hold the ideological position that 'intelligence' is objectively measurable and consists of 'cognitive' traits (Cernovsky, 1991). They assume that language is a passive 'tool' through which 'intelligence' can be conceptualized...
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Sport Psychological Skill Levels and Related Psychosocial Factors That Distinguish between Rugby Union Players of Different Participation Levels
Introduction The International Rugby Board repealed the rules on amateurism after the 1995 Rugby World Cup and as a result rugby became a professional sport (Treasure et al., 2000). Shortly after the 1995 World Cup tournament, Cox and Yoo (1995)...
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