Translation & Interpreting

Articles

Vol. 6, No. 1, January

Conveying Medication Prescriptions in American Sign Language: Use of Emphasis in Translations by Interpreters and Deaf Physicians
In the United States, deaf patients who use American Sign Language (ASL) typically communicate with their non-signing healthcare providers in one of two ways: in signed language (through an interpreter) or in English (by writing notes, lipreading,...
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Does Personality Matter? an International Study of Sign Language Interpreter Disposition
1. Introduction In various textbooks on signed language interpreting, a range of personal 'attributes' or 'qualities' are identified that signed language interpreters ought to have. These include flexibility and self-discipline (Neumann Solow, 1981,...
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Deaf and Non-Deaf Research Collaboration on Swiss German Sign Language (DSGS) Interpreter Training in Switzerland
1. Introduction and background Switzerland holds a unique position among the highly developed economies and democracies of Europe: It is situated outside the European Union (EU), yet strongly influences EU policies, and has especially influenced...
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Condemned to Repetition? an Analysis of Problem-Setting and Problem-Solving in Sign Language Interpreting Ethics
Introduction Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. --George Santayana Most sign language interpreters in the United States can likely recite it without thinking: 1964, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. It is a reference...
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Cohesion in English to ASL Simultaneous Interpreting
Introduction What makes a simultaneous interpretation successful? This is a central question in the field of interpretation and many different models have been proposed to try and capture the concept of success. One facet that was repeatedly mentioned...
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Tapping into the Interpreting Process: Using Participant Reports to Inform the Interpreting Process in Educational Settings
Introduction Increasingly throughout Canada, the United States (US), and other countries outside of North America, Deaf children are accessing education in their local schools via an inclusive education model. The majority of these Deaf students...
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Think Aloud Protocols: Viable for Teaching, Learning, and Professional Development in Interpreting
1. Introduction In the work of interpreters, much is left unseen. This is not dissimilar to other professions where much of the work happens internally, for example, computer engineers, nurses, and teachers. We often see the results of the mental...
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Cognitive Spaces: Expanding Participation Framework by Looking at Signed Language Interpreters' Discourse and Conceptual Blending
Introduction This research study is a result of my continued interest in how American Sign Language (ASL) interpreters use constructed action (CA) and constructed dialogue (CD) when interpreting from English into ASL. Using a theory that is rooted...
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Researching Signed Language Interpreting Research through a Sociolinguistic Lens
Introduction (1) One of the things often said about interpreting as an academic endeavour is that it is multi-disciplinary or inter-disciplinary, meaning that it can be studied from a variety of disciplines--sociology, anthropology, psychology,...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, July

Translators on Translation Memory (TM). Results of an Ethnographic Study in Three Translation Services and Agencies
1. Introduction Translation memory systems (hereafter TMs) (1) have been around for a number of years, and their use is now widespread not only among freelance translators, but also language service providers (LSPs) and other translation services...
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Exploring Interpreting for Young Children
1. Introduction Interpreting for young children--defined in this article as children under the age of seven--is practically an unexplored field within community interpreting (Nilsen & Hitching, 2010). While a few researchers have conducted studies...
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The Impact of Non-Native Accented English on Rendition Accuracy in Simultaneous Interpreting
1. Introduction English is undoubtedly the most popular lingua franca of our times: speakers of various language backgrounds worldwide, native or not, use the language as a means of intercultural communication. As a cross-cultural medium, the interpreter...
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Community Interpreting: Asian Language Interpreters' Perspectives
1. Introduction According to the United Nations' International Migration Report (2006), there are over 200 million migrants around the world. Australia is one of the countries where international migrants constitute a high proportion of the population;...
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Accomplishment in the Multitude of Counsellors: Peer Feedback in Translation Training
In the multitude of counsellors there is accomplishment. Proverbs 15:22 1. Introduction Peer feedback is an established language pedagogy activity and is commonly employed in writing classes. Peer feedback is used for both first language (L1)...
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Translation and Negotiation of Linguistic Varieties Amongst Translators of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages
1. Introduction Translators are often assumed to be native speakers and insiders (in an ethno-cultural sense) of at least one of the languages that they work in, notwithstanding their own desires or the demands of the Translation and Interpreting...
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Quotations in Translation: A Case Study
1. Introduction 1.1 Quotations: what's the problem? Quotations pose requirements regarding attribution, scientific integrity and copyright, often not viewed as part of the translator's task. However, the interface between languages places an...
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Free and Open Source Software in Translator Education. the MINTRAD Project
1. Introduction Since the '90s Spanish departments and schools training language mediators (translators, interpreters, localisers, subtitle editors, and the like) have not only considerable increased in number, but have also been obliged to adapt...
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Listening to the Voice of the Translator: A Description of Translator's Notes as Paratextual Elements
1. Introduction Gerard Genette defines paratexts as 'those liminal devices and conventions, both within the book (peritext) and outside it (epitext), that mediate the book to the reader: titles, and subtitles, pseudonyms, forewords, dedications,...
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Constructivist Translation Classroom Environment Survey (CTLES): Development, Validation and Application
1. Introduction Following Piaget and Vygotsky, constructivism, both in its radical or social form, has been enthusiastically discussed and greatly supported as an efficient and alternative approach to learning (von Glasersfeld, 1995, 1998; Wang...
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Scarpa, F. Translated and Adapted by M. A. Fiola (2010). la Traduction Specialisee: Une Approche Professionnelle a L'enseignement De la Traduction
Scarpa, F. Translated and adapted by M. A. Fiola (2010). La traduction specialisee: Une approche professionnelle a I'enseignement de la traduction. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. 464 pages. ISBN: 978-2-7603-0698-1. Also available as ebook www.press.uottawa.ca...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, January

Introduction
This special issue consists of a collection of eleven peer-reviewed articles, an invited commentary, and a book review. All these items are directly or indirectly relevant to certification of translators and/or interpreters. The main research question...
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Constructive Alignment in Translator Education: Reconsidering Assessment for Both Industry and Academy
1. Introduction A significant amount of work has been done on translation assessment (1) over the last decades (Angelelli & Jacobson, 2009; Gonzalez Davies, 2004; Kelly, 2005; Kussmaul, 1995; Malmkjaer, 2004; Nord, 1997; Tennant, 2005). Since...
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A Cross-National Overview of Translator and Interpreter Certification Procedures
1. Introduction Discussion on quality assurances and credentialing for occupational groups is now commonplace in most developed and many developing countries. Credentialing of minimum standards and skill levels required for individuals to perform...
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Universities and Interpreter Certification
1. Introduction Interpreter certification is a relatively recent trend in the translation and interpretation profession, but it is rapidly gaining favor as a mechanism for guaranteeing quality for the users of interpreting services. This article...
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Testing Interpreters: Developing, Administering, and Scoring Court Interpreter Certification Exams
There has been a need for interpreters since time immemorial. Whenever there has been contact between individuals or groups who spoke mutually unintelligible languages, interpreters have been pressed into service. Bilinguals, trilinguals, and polyglots,...
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Interpreting in the Gray Zone: Where Community and Legal Interpreting Intersect
1. Introduction The purpose of this article is to review, contrast, and compare non-courtroom legal interpreting practices conducted in the U.S. and Canada and to propose guidelines for legal interpreters who perform their duties outside the courtroom....
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The Development of Certification for Healthcare Interpreters in the United States
The Need for Competent Interpreters (1) A Spanish-speaking patient presented at the hospital and complained of dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Her past medical history included kidney infection and chronic abdominal pain. Before the patient was...
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Patient Safety, Professionalization, and Reimbursement as Primary Drivers for National Medical Interpreter Certification in the United States
1. Introduction Medical interpreting is a specialization of the interpreting profession, with a growing number of staff positions in hospitals worldwide, and an increasing number of professional associations dedicated to medical interpreting. The...
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The TransCert Project: Ensuring That Transnational Translator Certification Meets Stakeholder Needs
1. Introduction (1) This article first distinguishes various types of certification and describes social and business attitudes toward the certification of translators. It then addresses how the EU-funded TransCert program can address some of the...
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Welcome to the Real World: Professional-Level Translator Certification
Introduction "Toto, I've a feeling we're not in Kansas anymore."--Dorothy, just arrived in Oz Like Dorothy arriving in Oz, graduates of foreign language programs are shocked to discover that their painfully acquired Level 2 proficiency (1) is...
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Certification and Job Task Analysis (JTA): Establishing Validity of Translator Certification Examinations
1. Certification Examinations There are many translator certification programs around the world. In 2005, the International Federation of Translators (FIT, www.fit-ift.org) published a report by Jiri Stejskal (currently one of the vice-presidents...
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Signal Jamming in the Translation Market and the Complementary Roles of Certification and Diplomas in Developing Multilateral Signaling Mechanisms
1. Introduction There is little doubt that the language services market (which includes translation and interpreting) is growing in importance. Though a recent survey on the status of the translation profession in the European Union (Pym, Grin,...
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Alternatives to Certification
While this issue of Translation & Interpreting is focused on certification, (1) I wish to look at a key question that is not the major emphasis of the other articles. The reader will no doubt notice that the articles in this collection dealing...
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Sela-Sheffy, R. and Shlesinger, M. (Eds.) (2011). Identity and Status in the Translational Professions
Sela-Sheffy, R. and Shlesinger, M. (Eds.) (2011). Identity and status in the translational professions. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company Translation may be an ancient function, essential to survival wherever different cultures...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, January

The Accuracy of Medical Interpretations: A Pilot Study of Errors in Japanese-English Interpreters during a Simulated Medical Scenario
Introduction The significance of the interpreter's role in medical settings In medical settings, satisfaction and trust in the patient-provider relationship and in clinical outcomes rely primarily on effective communication. Researchers have...
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Student Interpreters Show Encoding and Recall Differences for Information in English and American Sign Language
Introduction Researchers frequently evaluate sign language interpreter training programs (ITPs) to improve the quality of the educational process (e.g., see Commission on Collegiate Interpreter Education, 2010; Davis, 2005; Napier, 2004; Shaw &...
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Active, Strategic Reading for Translation Trainees: Foundations for Transactional Methods
Reading the world Reading is a highly complex act, or series of acts, involving the coordination of "phonological, semantic, syntactic, morphological, pragmatic, conceptual, social, affective, articulatory, and motor systems" (Wolf, 2007, p.223)....
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Translation under Pressure and the Web: A Parallel Corpus-Study of Obama's Inaugural Speech in the Online Media
Time pressure has been recognised as one of the most prevalent situational factors in professional translation (Bayer-Hohenwarter, 2009; Charron 2005; Bowker 2004). During recent years, time pressure has been gradually increasing with the introduction...
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Court Translation and Interpreting in Times of the 'War on Terror': The Case of Taysir Alony
Introduction (1) Community translation and interpreting (2) in Spain is very much in its infancy, and the services available are, generally speaking, far from professional. Even court interpreting, the only form of community interpreting (3) in...
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Rudvin, M. and Tomassini, E. (2011). Interpreting in the Community and Workplace: A Practical Teaching Guide
Rudvin, M. and Tomassini, E. (2011). Interpreting in the community and workplace: A practical teaching guide Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan The rationale behind this book is that a gap needed to be filled in the relatively new--yet vibrant--area...
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Vol. 3, No. 2, July

Sociolinguistic Profiles of Users and Providers of Lay and Professional Interpreting Services: The Experiences of a Recently Arrived Iraqi Language Community in Melbourne
1. Introduction Within interpreting studies, research interest is largely focused on pedagogy and aspects of technique and practice but has recently extended outwards to look at interpreting as a social phenomenon. In particular, with the emergence...
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Telephone Interpreting: Understanding Practice and Identifying Research Needs
1. Setting the scene--Slow growth; one TIS in each country From the first Telephone Interpreting Service (TIS) established in 1973 by the Immigration Department in Australia, TI spread slowly, with predominantly one major service in each country--in...
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The Mediation of Reader Involvement in Soft News Transediting
1. Introduction Soft news stories usually touch upon entertainment or infotainment, including art, fashion, lifestyle, culture, society, and so forth. They are written in a casual and playful style and pertain to the reports of events that are less...
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Concepts with the Four Prefixes 'Trans-' 'Post' 'Inter-' and 'Cross-' in the Context of Translation Studies: A Comparison of Taiwanese and International Academic Papers
Introduction In the past two decades, translation studies has experienced a shift of focus from traditional linguistics towards culture, and has continued to develop into a cross-disciplinary field (Bassnett & Lefevere, 1998; Johnson, 1986;...
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Taibi, M. (2011). Tarjamat Al-Khadamaat Al-'Aammah (Community Interpreting and Translation)
Taibi, M. (2011). Tarjamat al-khadamaat al-'aammah (Community interpreting and translation). Rabat (Morocco): Dar Assalam. In Tarjamat al-khadamaat al-'aammah, Dr. Mustapha Taibi, a practitioner, researcher and trainer in the field of community...
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Vol. 3, No. 1, January

What Technology Does to Translating
1. Memory complicates decision-making Technology should help us with whatever we are doing. The ape uses a stick to retrieve the banana--we reach further, so we can do more. Technology thus extends the ways we interact with the world: our arms,...
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Speaking Your Translation: Students' First Encounter with Speech Recognition Technology
1. Introduction In this paper we examine the translation processes and performance of 14 Danish MA translation and interpreting (T&I) students at Copenhagen Business School (CBS), who produced translations into English (their L2) under different...
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Explicitation in Translation Memory-Mediated Environments. Methodological Conclusions from a Pilot Study
1. Introduction Always conduct at least one pilot study. As pointed out by Bausell (1994), this is a statement that almost all researchers know but sometimes far too many ignore. In studies employing experimental interventions, it is essential to...
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Community Accessibility of Health Information and the Consequent Impact for Translation into Community Languages
1. Introduction In a multilingual and multicultural society such as Australia, effective community-wide communication among diverse groups of language speakers with different cultural backgrounds is a constantly challenging issue. One of the areas...
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Legal Interpreters in the News in Ireland
1. Introduction The present DPP [Director of Public Prosecutions], James Hamilton, recalls that on one occasion a German sailor was brought into court charged with a public order offence following a night on the town. He was asked to stand up, but...
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Toward the Development of a Metacognitive Intercultural Communicative Competence in the Education of Students of Interpreting: General Theoretical/pragmatic Foundations
1. Introduction Metacognition in the undergraduate training process of future bilingual interpreters plays a role as decisively though silently dramatic as has been the very essence of this professional activity since its regular appearance in official...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, July

Context in Translation: Definition, Access and Teamwork
1. Introduction As Mona Baker (2006, p.321) observes, "The notion of context has been extensively invoked but rarely critiqued and elaborated in the study of translation and interpreting." Context also lacks a definition that can be applied in the...
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Tenor of Discourse in Translated Diglossic Indonesian Film Subtitles
1. Introduction The focus of this paper will be upon difficulties in developing subtitles that are capable of conveying shifts of tenor of discourse signalled by diglossic means in two Indonesian films from different genres. The first is a teen...
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Ethical Implications in Situations Where the Language of Interpretation Shifts: The AUSIT Code of Ethics
1. Introduction Moving between languages is axiomatic to interpreting. Moving between languages is also commonplace for bi- or multilingual individuals and groups. In Interpreting Studies the prototypical model of the interpreting situation is that...
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Learning from Practice: Interpreting at the 11M Terrorist Attack Trial
1. Introduction The scale of the 11M terrorist attack horrified Spaniards and others around the world, primarily because of the staggering number of victims. Later, at the trial, the number of defendants, lawyers, and witnesses that were ultimately...
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Explicitation of Implicit Logical Links in Persian-English Translation
1. Introduction Explicitation is a translation feature which has received a lot of attention in studies of translation. It seems to have been first introduced by Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) who defined it as "the method of introducing into the TL...
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The Complementarity of Chinese Translation Methods of English Metrical Poetry
1. Introduction The Chinese introduction of English metrical poetry dates back to the Qing Dynasty (1644-1908), and various Chinese translation methods have emerged. Up to now, poetry translators still hold conflicting opinions about the Chinese...
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Vol. 2, No. 1, January

The Role of Research in Interpreter Education
1. Introduction Many interpreters who are well established in the profession today most likely acquired their skills and earned their academic credentials at a time when the relationship posited in my title would have been considered controversial,...
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Error Deduction and Descriptors-A Comparison of Two Methods of Translation Test Assessment
1. NAATI The Australian National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) is a national standards body owned by the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments of Australia. Since it was established in 1977 it has since...
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What Interpreting Teachers Can Learn from Students: A Case Study
1. Introduction Professional interpreter training has been one of the main topics in the field of interpreting studies. In fact, it can be said that an initial impetus for interpreting research derived from educators' need for a systematic understanding...
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Training Refugees to Become Interpreters for Refugees
1. Introduction Australia is a country of migrants and has been since British colonisation in 1788. Migrants and their offspring have played an important role in forming Australia's rich tapestry of multiple cultures and peoples, and are an integral...
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Translating Differences-A Hybrid Model for Translation Training
1. Background The hybrid translation method proposed in this paper was developed during a joint translation project entitled 'Introducing Australian Children's Literature to China' funded by the Australia-China Council and the University of Western...
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Vol. 1, No. 2, July

Healthcare Interpreter Policy: Policy Determinants and Current Issues in the Australian Context
Interpreter Policy and the Policy Process Policy and the policy process are highly contested terms. In the health context, Buse et al (2005) see policy as embracing 'courses of action (and inaction) that affect the set of institutions, organisations,...
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Back Translation as a Means of Giving Translators a Voice
Introduction Back translation is a practice little studied in translation literature yet surprisingly prevalent in many areas of technical, particularly medical translation. Previous work by this author has studied the relative neglect or even vigorous...
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On Impartiality and Neutrality: A Diagrammatic Tool as a Visual Aid
Introduction The idea of re-visiting the subject of the interpreter's role in community interpreting (CI) settings may sound tedious to some, as the topic has been under the microscope for some time (Brune et al., 2003; Carr et al., 1997; Carr et...
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A Foot in Both Camps: Redressing the Balance between the 'Pure' and Applied Branches of Translation Studies
Introduction Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS) has been a dominant paradigm in Translation Studies (TS) since the 1980s and paramount in making TS an autonomous academic discipline. However, the principle of interdependency between the three...
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An Application of Temporal Frame in Translating Chinese News into English
Introduction English tense and aspect has been recognized as posing great difficulties for learners, particularly those whose L1 has no tense and aspect morphological inflections (Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig, 1998; Kathleen Bardovi-Harlig & Bergstrom,...
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