Wagadu: a Journal of Transnational Women's and Gender Studies

Articles

Vol. 10, Spring

Rethinking Survival Sex and Trafficking in Conflict and Post- Conflict Zones: The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovinia1
Abstract: Using the example of Radovan Stankovic, whose case was the first transferred from the ICTY to the Sarajevo War Crimes Chamber (and who escaped from prison just weeks into his sentence), this article describes how weaknesses in infrastructure...
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Embodiment, Authority and the International Criminalization of Sexual Violence against Women1
Abstract: This article analyzes interviews with African American women about their work prosecuting sexual and gender based violence at international tribunals. The analysis distinguishes abolitionist and early feminist themes from psychologized human...
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Living in the Shadows of Past Attrocities: War Babies of Bosnia1
Abstract: For centuries rape has been considered as an inherent part of war-culture, as a natural expression of hatred, and as a way for soldiers to release sexual energy. After the recent atrocities committed by Serbian forces in Bosnia however, it...
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Refugees, Sexual Violence, and Armed Conflict: The Nuances between Victims and Agents1
Abstract: The examination of forced migration of political refugees from sexual violence in armed conflict offers a unique vantage point for exploring the relationship between structure and agency. While it is significant to acknowledge the lack of autonomy...
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Sexual Misconduct and International Aid Workers: An Afghanistan Case Study1
Abstract: This paper seeks to add to existing study of gender and conflict by examining the complexities of interactions between international workers and local populations in spaces mired in war or post-war conflicts. Feminist scholarship on gender,...
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An Appraisal of Rwanda's Response to Survivors Who Experienced Sexual Violence in 1994(1)
Abstract: Over a million people were killed in 1994 during Rwanda's genocide and war, with many women compelled to 'offer' sex, raped, held in collective or individual sexual slavery and mutilated. An estimated 250 000 to 500 000 women still alive were...
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Investigating the Role of Government Legislation and Its Implementation in Addressing Gender- Based Violence among Returnee Refugee Women in Liberia1
Abstract: Empirical evidence has demonstrated that in contemporary wars, women and children bear the brunt of the violence unleashed in the form of killings, abductions, and various forms of gendered violence. This research investigates the ways in which...
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Resilience, Mêtis and Survival: How Egyptian Women Outsmart the Ills of Global Capitalism
The fruits of global capitalist policies in developing countries rarely reach the poor. With structural adjustment policies in the developing world resulting in the privatization of public firms and the curbing of public services, this in turn, leads...
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Review of Gender Violence at the U.S.-Mexico Border: Media Representation and Public Response
Review of Gender Violence at the U.S.-Mexico Border: Media Representation and Public Response, edited by Héctor Domínguez-Ruvalcaba and Ignacio Corona, Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 2010.Gender Violence at the U.S.-Mexico Border offers a rich...
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Review of the Making of Our Bodies, Ourselves: How Feminism Crosses Borders
Review of The Making of Our Bodies, Ourselves: How Feminism Crosses BordersIn The Making of Our Bodies, Ourselves: How Feminism Crosses Borders, Kathy Davis insists that the widely read Our Bodies, Ourselves (OBOS), now available in over thirty translations,...
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Review of Harem Histories: Envisioning Places and Living Spaces
Review of Harem histories: Envisioning places and living spaces edited by Booth, Marilyn, Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2010.This outstanding edited collection of thirteen chapters presents a comprehensive analysis of the social spaces signified...
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Vol. 9, Fall

Surveying the Field : Gender Equity in Higher Education :Selected Papers from Succeding as Women in Higher Education Conference at SUNY Cortland
2009Common wisdom dictates that if the struggle for gender equality could be successful anywhere, it would be in the halls of academia. Over the past three decades, women students have become the majority in both undergraduate and graduate programs across...
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Ivory Towers, Playing Fields and Glass Ceilings: Beyond Metaphor to Best Practices
Keynote AddressSucceeding as Women in Higher Education Conference,SUNY Cortland2009Abstract: Taken from the keynote address given at SUNY Cortland's "Succeeding as Women in Higher Education" 2009 Conference, this address uses the framework of metaphor...
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The Road to Gender Equality in Higher Education: Sexism, Standpoints, and Success
Abstract: This article shares the findings from a mixed-method study of women's groups at one mid-sized university. In many ways, women's groups at this institution epitomized women leading and succeeding in higher education. Long term, incremental,...
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Gender Stereotypes of Leaders: Do They Influence Leadership in Higher Education?
Abstract: This article reviews social psychological and organizational development literature on gender stereotypes and leadership style and effectiveness and explores its relevance for leadership in higher education. Implications of the dichotomous...
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The Politics of Data: Gender Bias and Border Mentality in the EEOC Job Category Compliance Chart and How Transnational Gender Mainstreaming Can Offer Best Practices for Change
Abstract: This essay examines how the EEOC Compliance Chart obscures and so perpetuates gender inequalities for today's institutions. The paper explores second and third wave feminist national and global organizing strategies to contemplate best practices...
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"Now I Have Something That Is Mine": Women's Higher Education Gains as Feminist Standpoint
Abstract: Whose legacies of resistance are remembered? Whose are not? What meaning can we extract from feminist standpoints uncovered? Dominant societal structures record women's lives in institutional memory where traditional scientific empiricism validates...
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Parenthood in Academia: What Happens When There Is No Policy?
Abstract: In 2001 the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) declared that "the development and implementation of institutional policies that enable the healthy integration of work responsibilities with family life in academe requires renewed...
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Task Force on the Status of Women at SUNY Potsdam: A Perspective on a Decade of Feminist Practices
Abstract: This paper argues that the Task Force on the Status of Women at SUNY Potsdam stands as a model of best practices for institutions of Higher Education that want to improve campus climate, and respond appropriately to demographic. The results...
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Declining Faculty Wage Premiums: Analysis over Time by Gender in the Public and Private Sectors
Abstract: The wage premium is the relative wage of faculty members above that received by the average worker in the United States. This paper measures the wage premium by gender between faculty and full time workers from 1972 to 2007 using U.S. Census...
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Making Miss India Miss World: Constructing Gender, Power, and the Nation in Postliberalization India
Review of Making Miss India Miss World: Constructing Gender, Power, and the Nation in Postliberalization India by Susan Dewey, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, 2008.If we have learned anything from three decades' worth of third-wave feminist theory,...
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The African Women's Protocol
Review of The African Women's Protocol by Rosemary Semufumu Mukasa, Oxfam, Great Britain, 2008.Rosemary Semufumu Mukasa's The African Women's Protocol (2008) focuses on the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the Rights of...
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Religion at the Corner of Bliss and Nirvana: Politics, Identity and Faith in New Migrant Communities
Review of Religion at the Corner of Bliss and Nirvana: Politics, Identity and Faith in New Migrant Communities by Lois Ann Lorentzen, Joaquin Jay Gonzales III, et. al. Duke University Press, Durham, NC: 2009.This book takes a close look at the influences...
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Black and Green: Afro-Colombians, Development, and Nature in the Pacific Lowlands
Review of Black and Green: Afro-Colombians, Development, and nature in the Pacific Lowlands by, Kiran Asher, Duke University Press, Durham, 2009.Kiran Asher has written a path-breaking book that uncovers the politics of black activism and state formation...
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Hollow Bodies: Institutional Responses to Sex Trafficking in Armenia, Bosnia, and India
Review of Hollow Bodies: Institutional Responses to Sex Trafficking in Armenia, Bosnia, and India by Susan Dewey, Kumarian Press, Sterling VA, 2008.Through her ethnographic research as a consultant on Gender and Counter-Trafficking to the International...
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Vol. 8, Fall

Dispatch from New York City
For the past nine years, the Sex Workers Project at the Urban Justice Center has helped sex workers in New York City fight the legal battles that come with being a criminalized population. Although this year we secured a major victory for survivors of...
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Prostitute Campaigns for a Seat in the Brazilian Federal Congress
Under the slogan "Uma puta deputada" (a pun meaning either "congressional whore" or "a bitchin' [awesome] congresswoman"), sex workers' rights activist and retired prostitute Gabriela Silva Leite has launched her candidacy for a seat in Brazil's House...
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Breaking the Silence, Building a Bridge
I'm a sex worker who lives and works in the U.S, and I love what I do. I love the freedoms and benefits my job provides, but I hate that human trafficking is such an insidious cancer inside my industry. I am not the only one from within my vocation that...
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Sex Workers Go Mobile: A Mobile Technology Innovation for Harm Reduction
PROS Network, a coalition of social service providers offering services to sex workers and other marginalized populations from a harm reduction and human rights perspective, has designed the PROS Network Services Finder, a mobile website for use with...
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Midwest Stops Traffick: DePauw University's Controversial Conference
"Stopping Traffick!", was a two-day event that took place on September 10 - 11, 2010 and was of interest to sex worker rights activists as its organizers, Michelina Ferrara and Margarita Villa, took a rare and admirable position by offering nearly half...
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Whores on Campus: The Sex Worker Arts Show Controversy
In 2008, the College of William and Mary forced performers in a touring art show (and their student sponsors) to sign a contract described by the ACLU as discriminatory and unconstitutional. This contract required the art show to comply with state obscenity...
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Review of the Dancing Girls of Lahore: Selling Love and Saving Dreams in Pakistan's Ancient Pleasure District
Review of The dancing girls of Lahore: Selling love and saving dreams in Pakistan's ancient pleasure district by Louise Brown, London, Harper Perennial, 2009.Treena OrchardThe Dancing Girls of Lahore by Louise Brown provides a richly detailed and insightful...
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Review of What's Money Got to Do with It? Risky Behavior in Commercial Sex Work in Managua, Nicaragua
Review of What's money got to do with it? Risky behavior in commercial sex work in Managua, Nicaragua by Alys Willman, Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag, 2009.Chimaraoke O. IzugbaraBefore reading Alys Willman's six-chapter What's money got to do with...
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One Editorial
Sex workers throughout the world share a uniquely maligned mystique that simultaneously positions them as sexually desirable and socially repulsive. In order to better understand the dynamics of this phenomenon cross-culturally, this special issue presents...
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Review of the State of Sex: Tourism, Sex and Sin in the New American Heartland
Review of The state of sex: Tourism, sex and sin in the new American heartland by Barbara G. Brents, Crystal A. Jackson and Kathryn Hausbeck, New York: Routledge, 2010Lorraine NencelThis book is exemplary of contemporary studies published on sex work....
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Review of Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic
Review of Economies of desire: Sex and tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic by Amalia Cabezas, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.Erica Lorraine WilliamsDrawing upon over a decade of ethnographic research in the Caribbean, Amalia Cabezas'...
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Gender and Health: A Social Movement's Agenda for Big Pharma
Abstract:Social movements have an important new campaigning and organizing competence in new information communication technologies. These technologies also enable the members of social movements to readily research the accuracy of information: knowledge...
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Review of Lydia's Open Door: Inside Mexico's Most Modern Brothel
Review of Lydia's open door: Inside Mexico's most modern brothel by Patty Kelly, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.Jenny Heineman and Barbara G. BrentsAnthropologist Patty Kelly examines state-regulated sex work in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, the...
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Two: "Yeah, He's My Daddy": Linguistic Constructions of Fictive Kinships in a Street-Level Sex Work Community1
Abstract: This paper examines how language assists in the construction of fictive kinship networks amongst Southwestern U.S. street-level sex workers, thereby establishing affective ties and obligations as well as a definitive power structure between...
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Three: Complexity of Female Sex Workers' Collective Actions in Postsocialist China
Abstract: This paper explores labor resistance amongst rural migrant karaoke bar hostesses, many of whom are sex workers, in the northeastern Chinese city of Dalian. I argue that hostesses are subject to exploitation and violence because of hostile public...
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Four: Parenting and Money Making: Sex Work and Women's Choices in Urban Uganda
Abstract: Based upon detailed life histories of 96 Ugandan sex workers, this article documents the pathways women take into prostitution through marital separation and the subsequent need to support children via rural-urban migration to obtain wage work...
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Five: Fare Tales and Fairy Tails: How Gay Sex Tourism Is Shaping the Brazilian Dream
Abstract: This article analyzes the aspirations of michês, straight-identified Brazilian men who exchange sex for money with gay-identified male sex tourists from North America and Western Europe. In so doing, I contrast the exoticizing fantasies of...
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Six: Youth Sex Workers on the U.S.-Mexico Border1
Abstract: The everyday lives of youth sex workers remain largely ignored in global debates about the impact of criminalization and policing on sex workers. Youth sex workers are often portrayed as victims of commercial child sexual exploitation, with...
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Seven: Our Lady of Help: Sex, Tourism and Transnational Movements in Copacabana
Abstract: Analysis of sexual tourism has generally concentrated on the subjugation of women as devalued objects of exchange shuffling between the so-called "developing" and "developed" worlds. Basing our analysis on ethnographic fieldwork among tourists...
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Eight: Focusing on the Child, Not the Prostitute: Shifting the Emphasis in Accounts of Child Prostitution
Abstract: Most media accounts of child prostitution rely on brief vignettes describing in detail the abuse endured by children who sell sex. In contrast, ethnographic studies look more holistically at these children, discussing their families, their...
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Nine: "Some of Them, They Do Right; Some of Them, They Do Wrong": Moral Ambiguity and the Criteria for Help among Street Sex Workers1
Abstract: Debates surrounding criminalization and legalization are often polarized and occur without including the experiences and expertise of street sex workers. This article places street workers at the center of this conversation and offers perspectives...
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Ten: Illegal Lives, Loves, and Work: How the Criminalization of Procuring Affects Sex Workers in Canada
Abstract2: Based on interviews with sex workers and advocates of decriminalization in Toronto, Canada, this article argues that aspects of the Criminal Code's procuring legislation has detrimental impacts on sex workers' daily realities and relationships....
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Eleven: The Consequences of Arbitrary and Selective Enforcement of Prostitution Laws
Abstract: In policing criminal activity, law enforcement agents cannot simply choose which rapist, thief or murderer to search for and apprehend, as it is their duty to arrest, prosecute and punish every individual who commits such crimes. Yet this is...
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Twelve: Negotiating Contradictory Expectations: Stories from "Secret" Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract: Drawing upon research in rural coastal Andhra Pradesh, this article analyzes sex workers' negotiations of family and social life with their work in a highly stigmatized profession. Such women routinely described the double bind presented by...
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Thirteen: Writing Sex Work Online: The Case of Belle De Jour
Abstract: This article examines responses in the British media to the autobiographical writings of Brooke Magnanti, known as Belle de Jour. In her blog and in the related book and television series, Intimate Adventures of a London Call-Girl, published...
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Fourteen: Sex Work for the Soul: Negotiating Stigma as a Feminist Activist and Closeted Sex Worker
Abstract2: As a white, middle-class Australian sex worker, my greatest professional fear was being "outed" to the women's and community organizations with which I worked. For twenty years I supplemented my activist work, with its concomitant high social...
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Vol. 7, Fall

The Nomadic Experiment of a Steppe Land Flâneuse
Ulaanbaatar is no Paris. Strolling is not a Mongolian gait. Speed and chaos animate the streets, and the metropolitan foreigner, however practiced in flânerie, stumbles before the onslaught of horses. Multi-horse-powered land-cruisers, that is, the vehicle...
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Turtle's Pace: Sunday, March 29, 2009
http://www.loriellis.com/loriellis.com/Kyoto_blog/Kyoto_blog.htmlI've been giving a bit of thought to how and how fast people move through the city. Native Kyotoites have a relatively relaxed gait that takes them through daily travels whether walking...
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Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones
Review of Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones by Carol Boyce Davies, Duke University Press, Durham, 2008.Left of Karl Marx by Carol Boyce Davies is an engaging and long over due scholarly treatment of the life of one...
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Revolutionary Women in Postrevolutionary Mexico
Review of Revolutionary Women in Postrevolutionary Mexico by Jocelyn Olcott, Duke University Press, Durham, 2005Based on three rich case studies, Jocelyn Olcott's book Revolutionary Women in Postrevolutionary Mexico brings together a comparative analysis...
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Stroller Flâneur
I push my son in a stroller through the neighborhood. Wandering with no agenda other than outside time with my child, I reflect upon this locomotion that constitutes the most public and stereotyped activities of motherhood. The pace of the walk forces...
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She's Walking . .
A woman, in her early thirties, is walking on the sidewalk of a suburban neighborhood. The houses are identical architecturally with slight differences only in color. She is wearing white cotton pants and a light green sweater with a twill texture. Her...
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Site-Seeing
In Site-seeing, I look to address the disciplinary structures surrounding photographic vision through a series of photographs in which I have removed the camera from its habitual proximity to the eye, allowing it greater corporeal liberty. The images...
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Walking the Wall: Global Flâneuse with Local Dilemmas
Introduction: Traveling IdentityIt is quite special for me to write about global flânerie while reflecting on two distinct events: a physical act of unpacking in my new place and an extended celebration of my personal and artistic staggering from the...
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Specters of Mother India: The Global Restructuring of an Empire
Review of Specters of Mother India: The Global Restructuring of an Empire by Mrinalini Sinha, Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2006.Mrinalini Sinha's Specters of Mother India "furnish[es] the narrative of a small episode" that it claims was...
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Editorial
PreambleTo attempt to define flânerie is to get lost in a prickly bramble of urban rhythms, decay, planning, demolition, alienation, construction, voyeurism, renewal, melancholy, expansion, celebration, consumption, and spectacular display-an exhilarating...
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Vol. 6, Winter

Editorial
It is not enough just to open the door to the rooms of power - we have to get inside and rearrange the furniture! "Mama Mongella"iiiVolume 6 of Wagadu presents a broad spectrum of papers on women's activism in Africa in collaboration with the Journal...
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Women and Leadership Positions: Social and Cultural Barriers to Success
AbstractWomen continue to aspire for leadership positions in all spheres of governance in both the public and private sector. However it has not been easy. The paper will examine the many challenges women still face in taking leadership positions with...
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Acceptance: Living with HIV/AIDS: An Interview with Video Producer Paul Van der Veur
"HIV is in our blood, it's not in the mind.""We want people living with the virus to go to the schools to teach the kids.""You have to have a healthy life, please."The voices of three Namibian women, Acceptance: Living With HIV/AIDSPaul van der Veur...
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The Autonomy of Ugandan Women's Organizations: How It Matters in Creating and Maintaining a Dependable Democracy
AbstractFor African nations "independence" from colonial rule seemed a long-awaited time that would re-establish and/ or introduce democracy. In 1962 Uganda embraced "independence" from colonial rule with both arms. However, practices of poor governance,...
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A Puppet on a String: The Manipulation and Nationalization of the Female Body in the "Female Circumcision Crisis" of Colonial Kenya
The 1920s were years of growing resistance to colonial rule in Kenya. Kenyans were reacting to the oppressive nature of British rule, and especially to the confining boundaries that British officials had drawn for them in the political, economic, and...
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Drawing from the Wells of Culture: Grace Onyango and the Kenyan Political Scene (1964-1983)
AbstractThis paper examines the career of Grace Onyango in a bid to recover the history of independent Kenya's most prominent female politician. To find success as a politician, Onyango had to have an understanding of the interplay between her ethnic...
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Accessing Housing Finance in South Africa: The Role of Women Activism
AbstractWomen's history in South Africa is replete with examples of exclusion, discrimination, and marginalization. The transition to democracy in 1994 and inclusion of gender equality in the post-apartheid constitution in 1996 were seen as steps in...
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"Still Seeking for Something": The Unspeakable (Loss) in "Passing"
I am saturnine - bereft - disconsolate,The Prince of Aquitaine whose tower has crumbled;My lone star is dead - and my bespangled luteBears the Black Sun of Melancholia.Gérard de Nerval, El Desdichado1The Melancholic SoulsIn his famous essay "Mourning...
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From the Revolution to the Maquiladores: Gender, Labor, and Globalization in Nicaragua
Review of From the Revolution to the Maquiladores: Gender, Labor, and Globalization in Nicaragua by Jennifer Bickham Mendez. Duke University Press.In 1994, a small group of women in post-revolutionary Nicaragua founded an organization called Maria Elena...
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Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman's Search for Everything across Italy, India and Indonesia
Review Of Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman's Search For Everything Across Italy, India And Indonesia By Elizabeth Gilbert. Penguin Group. New York, New York. 2006.Elizabeth Gilbert reveals her innermost thoughts in Eat, Pray, Love, sharing personal experiences...
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Working with Gender: Wage Labor and Social Change in Southwestern Nigeria
Review Of Working With Gender: Wage Labor And Social Change In Southwestern Nigeria By Lisa A. Lindsay, Heinemann, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 2003.Lindsay has written an excellent book that offers empirical validity to prevailing theories that ideas...
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Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a Midwife in Mali
Review of Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years with a Midwife in Mali by Kris Holloway and John Bidwell, Consulting Editor (Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 2007).Monique and the Mango Rains narrates a friendship that develops between the author,...
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Gender and Ethnicity in Banda's Malawi
AbstractDuring his thirty year reign in Malawi Kamuzu Banda built a state mythology and ideology of development based on constructions of gender and ethnicity that promised no future and little economic change for the majority of the population. The...
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Vol. 5, 2008

Editorial
This particular issue of Wagadu, Journal of Transnational Women's and Gender Studies aims to explore the life experiences, agency, and human rights of women, who are involved in a variety of activities that are characterized as "trafficked" terrains...
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The NGO-Ification of the Anti-Trafficking Movement in the United States: A Case Study of the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking
IntroductionThe ideas for this paper have emerged over the course of the past two years, in which I have sought to combine my academic research on trafficking and sex work with participatory action research and human rights activism. The latter has brought...
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When Tragedy Hits: A Concise Socio-Cultural Analysis of Sex Trafficking of Young Iranian Women
AbstractIn this paper, I focus predominantly on the cultural context of sex trafficking of young Iranian women into the underground markets of the Persian Gulf region. Neither human trafficking nor sex trade is a modern trait. While these age-old practices...
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From Thailand with Love: Transnational Marriage Migration in the Global Care Economy
IntroductionTransnational brides are just one segment of the 60 million female migrants of today. During the 1970s, Western Europe and Australia were common destinations for South-East Asian brides (De Stoop, 1994). In the 1980s and 1990s, migration...
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Beyond Trafficking, Agency and Rights: A Capabilities Perspective on Filipina Experiences of Domestic Work in Paris and Hong Kong
AbstractCurrent analyses of trafficking in unskilled female migrant labor are dominated by the concepts of victimization, agency and rights. So far, however, such concepts have done more to legitimate receiving countries' border control protection than...
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Anti-Trafficking Campaign and Karaoke Bar Hostesses in China1
AbstractThis article discusses the adverse effect upon sex workers of China's abolitionist policy that focuses on forced prostitution and launches anti-trafficking campaigns. The argument developed in this paper is based on over twenty months of fieldwork...
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Birth on the Threshold: Childbirth and Modernity in South India
REVIEW OF BIRTH ON THE THRESHOLD: CHILDBIRTH AND MODERNITY IN SOUTH INDIA BY CECILIA VAN HOLLEN. BERKELEY, CA. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS, 2003.In her book Birth on the Threshold, Cecilia Van Hollen describes the modernization of childbirth among...
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Woman's Identity and the Qur'an: A New Reading
WOMAN'S IDENTITY AND THE QUR'AN: A NEW READING. NIMAT HAFEZ BARAZANGI. UNIVERSITY PRESS OF FLORIDA. 2004. ISBN: 0-8130-2785-3.With Woman's Identity and the Qur'an, prolific author Nimat Hafez Barazangi has provided another contribution to the burgeoning...
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Women and Law in West Africa: Gender Relations in the Family- a West African Perspective
AKUA KUENYEHIA (ED.). WOMEN AND LAW IN WEST AFRICA: GENDER RELATIONS IN THE FAMILY- A WEST AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE (ACCRA: WOMEN AND LAW IN WEST AFRICA, 2003. PP. XV, 215. GRAPHS, TABLES.)The literature on women's rights tends to be dominated by the concerns...
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