Thymos

Articles

Vol. 5, No. 2, Fall

Delinquents, Savages, and Lovers an Introduction to the Cinema of Boyhood
Introduces this special issue's theme of "Boys and Cinema," discussing the emergence of a specific, international cinema of boyhood in the early 1960s, and five main themes established within it by the late 1960s.Keywords: CINEMA OF BOYHOOD, BOYS IN...
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Tough Guys, Tattle-Tales, and Tears Hollywood Defines the American Boy, 1930-1934
This essay examines the portrayals of boys in American film, especially Jackie Cooper, during the "pre-code" period of Hollywood sound films, roughly 1930-1934. With the Great Depression cutting movie attendance, studios explored social taboos to entice...
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Abjection and the Cinematic Cholo: The Chicano Gang Stereotype in Sociohistoric Context
In this brief research note, the author uses a sociohistoric lens to examine selected films that have employed the cholo, or Chicano gang member, stereotype. He finds that the cholo is a prevalent archetype of Mexican and Mexican American youth. The...
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Boyhood, Ideology, and Popular Hindi Cinema
Popular cinema in India has been identified as providing rich cultural texts for understanding the legitimization of ideological and political hegemony, especially through narrative-cinematic forms popular in the post-colonial Indian public sphere. An...
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Lost Boys: The Infernal Youth of the Cinematic Teenage Vampire
This paper takes a comparative look at the configuration of boyhood as shown in two periods of the vampire film: the teen-vamp explosion of the 1980s, which produced Joel Schumacher's The Lost Boys, and recent representations in vampire romance such...
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Wally Cleaver Goes to War: The Boy Citizen-Soldier on the Cold War Screen
This paper examines the ways in which instructional films, television shows, and television commercials both depicted and sought to construct the experience of American boyhood in the decades immediately following World War II. During the Cold War, many...
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The Evolving Psychoanalytic Vision of Boyhood(s) and Masculinity(ies)
Over the course of the past century, the dominant psychoanalytic paradigm for understanding boyhood and male gender identity development has been grounded in two complementary visions: Freud's original formulations and, later, the propositions of Ralph...
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Vol. 4, No. 2, Fall

Sexual Consent and Human Rights
The basic human right to sexual autonomy and self-determination encompasses two sides: it enshrines both the right to engage in wanted sexuality on the one hand, and the right to be free and protected from unwanted sexuality, from sexual abuse and sexual...
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Introduction to Special Issue on "Boys' Sexuality and Age of Consent"
Adolescent sexuality has been at the forefront of the recent "Culture Wars/' as is clear from the many news stories and political battles over issues such as sex education, teen pregnancy and STDs, Child Sexual Abuse, enhanced legal regulation of sex...
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"The Individual Can.": Objectifying Consent
The issue of age of consent for sexual activities has been bedevilled by the absence of any objective standards or criteria for what is meant by or involved in 'consent'. Despite this absence-or because of it-the social and political response has been...
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Social Response to Age-Gap Sex Involving Minors: Empirical, Historical, Cross-Cultural, and Cross-Species Considerations
Social response to age-gap sex involving minors has become increasingly severe. In the US, non-coercive acts that might have been punished with probation 30 years ago often lead to decades in prison today. Punishment also increasingly includes civil...
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Sexual Consent and the Adolescent Male, or What Can We Learn from the Greeks?
Classical Athens offers a useful comparative test-case for essentialist assumptions about the necessary harm that emanates from sexual intimacy between adults and adolescent boys. The Athenian model does not fit victimological expectations, but instead...
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Interrogating the Essential: Moral Baselines on Adult-Child Sex
In this paper I emphasize the multiple ways dominant moral and essentialist understandings feed into the wider regulatory norms and conventional thinking governing adult-child sexual relations. Clearly, researchers are not immune from the ascendant material...
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Crimen Sollicitationis: Tabooing Incest after the Orgy
Late modernity's binary intrigue of child sexuality/abuse is understood as a backlash phenomenon reactive to a general trans-Atlantic crisis concerning the interlocking of kinship, religion, gender, and sexuality. Tellingly dissociated from 1980s gay...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring

"I Want My Boy Back!": Substitute Sons and Damsels in Distress
Three recent mass media texts are analyzed in which the object of rescue for a male hero is a teenage boy rather than the traditional damsel in distress. These rescues and their aftermaths display considerable slippage between custodial and romantic...
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"The Hero of This Little History": Hobbledehoydom in Anthony Trollope's Ayala's Angel
Using Anthony Trollope's character Tom Tringle of Ayala's Angel, I argue that in his portrayal of the hobbledehoy, Trollope is imposing on Victorian boys and young men a code of behavior every bit as restrictive and every bit as unnatural as the "suffer...
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Boys on the Outer: Themes in Male Engagement with Music
This paper examines the cause of exclusionary practices in music, documenting the core values that underpin this issue in relation to males' engagement with music. The focus for the paper is on the way in which gender has been one of the primary principles...
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"Real Boys" Don't Sing, but Real Boys Do: The Challenge of Constructing and Communicating Acceptable Boyhood
This paper describes a digital interactive book targeted at 10-14 year old boys which aims to educate about how the voice develops during puberty. The contents are based on a conventional print book for adults. The D-book has an advocacy as well as educative...
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Genital Integrity and Genital Equity
Genital integrity advocates struggle to safeguard all children from genital cutting. Gender equity activists promote true equality of men and women. Commonalities and differences between the two movements are very illuminating. Three words relevant to...
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Lost Boys: An Estimate of U.S. Circumcision-Related Infant Deaths
Baby boys can and do succumb as a result of having their foreskin removed. Circumcision-related mortality rates are not known with certainty; this study estimates the scale of this problem. This study finds that approximately 117 neonatal circumcision-related...
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Vol. 3, No. 2, Fall

Roundtable: What Does "Boyhood Studies" Mean?
EDITOR'S NOTEFor this, the sixth issue of Thymos, which will conclude its third year of publication and with a lively plan of upcoming issues already in place, I asked the members of our editorial board and all past contributors to Thymos to informally...
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Colloquium: The Status of Boyhood Studies
EDITOR'S NOTEThe following are responses to a request to the members of our editorial board and contributors to Thymos on the theme of the status of boyhood studies . The twelve contributions take quite different perspectives on the topic. They raise...
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Coming of Age as a Villain: What Every Boy Needs to Know in a Misandric World
Once upon a time, coming of age as a man was simple to define. Not necessarily simple to achieve, but simple to define. A man was a male adult-someone whom other male adults had certified in a ritual context, a rite of passage, as qualified to take on...
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The Boy Crisis: Our Sons, Our Schools, Our Future
Is there a boy crisis , and if there is , what are its symptoms? And what are the dynamics underlying those symptoms?We know that in the last quarter- century, there have been books of federal programs as thick as a Manhattan phone book on programs for...
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The War against Boys: Has It Ended?
The war against boys has not ended. But it is a lot less ferocious these days. And boys have more allies than ever before. In the early nineties when I began research for the Wir Against Boys, few educators or journalists were talking about boys' academic...
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Boys and the Boy Crisis
How many men in this room have ever heard the words "You're not dealing with your feelings"? Raise your hand, (many of the men raise their hands) Yeah, that's most of us . And hopefully, in the next 20 minutes or so, as we talk, you'll begin to have...
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Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring

From Boy to Man in Antiquity: Jesus in the Apocryphal Infancy Gospel of Thomas
This article presents a survey of research on childhood in antiquity and describes briefly the position of children in late antiquity and early Christianity. Special attention is given to the relationship between childhood and gender, with a focus on...
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Anakin Skywalker, Star Wars and the Trouble with Boys
Scholars claim that the six films comprising the Star Wars epic are the United States' most important modern myth. The films have meaning for contemporary lives and serve as reflections of the fears, anxieties, and hopes surrounding what many perceive...
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The Significance of the Body: The Construction of Masculinity among German Students
This article discusses strategies of constructing masculinity among German school boys and shows the close interrelation of social status, social and symbolic value, and the success or failure of playing with male gender orders. It highlights the important...
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Presence in Relationship: A New Construct for Understanding Adolescent Friendships and Psychological Health
This article introduces the construct of "presence in relationship" along with a 25-item measure for its quantitative assessment. This construct expands upon the construct of "voice" as an indication of one's experiences of self in relationships. Whereas...
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The Rite Journey: Rediscovering Rites of Passage for Boys
The Rite Journey is a program to allow Australian Year-9 male students age 14-15 years to share a year-long partnership with a teacher-guide as the boy explores what it means to become a respectful and responsible man. Given the current view that rites...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, Fall

Boys, Boyhood and the Construction of Masculinity: Guest Editor's Introduction
This introductory article explains the aims of the interdisciplinary conference "Masculinity and the Other" held at Balliol College, Oxford, August 29-30, 2007, at which all of the papers comprising this special issue of Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies...
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The Question of Age in the Construction of Hellenistic Masculinities in Menander
The present article discusses the importance of age in the construction of masculinities during the Hellenistic period. Focusing on the comedies of Menander, it aims to show how not only chronological or physical age, but also mental age, that is, maturity,...
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Patrick Pearse, Boyish Spirituality and Irish National Identity
This article explores the construction of boyhood in short fiction written by Patrick Pearse, the Irish nationalist and political activist executed for his leading role in the abortive Easter Rising of 1916. Pearse's focus on the spiritual dimension...
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Young Masculinity and "The Other": Representations of Ideal Manliness in Twentieth-Century English Boys' Annuals
Twentieth-century English boys' annuals often defined masculinity against notions of the "otherness" of gender, race and class. The children's annual, which developed as a popular literary form during the Victorian period, was designed to instruct and...
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Virtual Heroes: Boys, Masculinity and Historical Memory in War Comics 1945 - 1995
This article maintains that as a genre war comics are a valuable and neglected source for understanding constructions of ideal masculinity in the post-war West. While its main focus is the depiction of heroic manliness in one of the most commercially...
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All the Boys Are Straight: Heteronormativity in Contemporary Books on Fathering and Raising Boys
Over the past decade a rapidly growing number of books have been published on fathering and raising boys. Whilst these books purport to simply describe boyhood, this article suggests that they are in fact actively engaged in constructing boyhood and...
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Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring

Boys in Children's Literature and Popular Culture: Masculinity, Abjection, and the Fictional Child
Boys in children's literature and popular culture: Masculinity, abjection, and the fictional child by Annette Wannamaker. New York: Routledge Falmer, 2007, 200 pp.Since the publication of John Stephens' (2002) Ways of Being Male: Representing Masculinities...
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We Boys Together: Teenagers in Love before Girl-Craziness
We Boys Together: Teenagers in Love before Girl-Craziness by Jeffrey P. Dennis. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2007, x + 283 pp.For decades adults and adolescents have assumed that when boys reach puberty their hormones begin to flood their...
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Boyhood Melancholia and the Vocal Projection of Masculinity
This article explores the existential status of ten to fourteen year old boys through a full time, research council funded study of young masculinity and voice. Drawing on the ideas of writers who have suggested this period can be a melancholic one,...
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Shakespeare's "Boys"
Shakespeare was keenly affected by the lives of the boys who played the parts of women in his plays. Evidence for his understanding and compassion is found in the speeches of those characters who cross-dress female to male. By a double negation of his...
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Not Too Real: Young Men Find "The Real" in "Unreal" Media
This article explores stories told by five young men, ages 17-19, about how they conceptualize "reality" through their electronic media choices. In studies on young people and the media, there is a rich and popular conservative tradition of seeing those...
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Paddling and the Repression of the Feminine in Male Hazing
Despite a nearly two decades' long war on high school and college hazing, the traditional practice of paddling male pledges on the buttocks persists as a physical and psychological test of worthiness for membership in certain all-male organizations....
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Democracy's Children? Masculinities of Coloured Adolescents Awaiting Trial in Post-Apartheid Cape Town, South Africa
This study explored the young, marginalised masculinities of 25 boys awaiting trial for various offences in Cape Town, South Africa. The boys came from impoverished areas created by Apartheid legislation and most of the boys were involved in gangs. Through...
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Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent (MRNI-A)
Data were collected on samples of American (N = 172) and Scottish (N = 264) adolescents to evaluate the scale reliability and construct validity of an adolescent version of Levant et al.'s (1992) Male Role Norms Inventory. Results indicate that the MRNI-A...
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Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall

Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents: Correlates with Masculinity Ideology
This study investigated the Gender Role Conflict Scale-Adolescent Version (GRCS-A) and its relationship with the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS), the measure from which it was adapted. Significant correlations between the adult and adolescent versions...
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Boys Left Behind: Gender Role Changes in Alaska
The gender gap in college enrollment and completion has become a concern in many nations. The phenomenon is extreme in Alaska, particularly among indigenous people. Semi-structured interviews with 162 urban and indigenous students graduating from high...
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The Changing Nature of Childhood and Boyhood: A Metabletic Study
Although there is a realization in Western society today that childhood is changing, the topic remains clouded in confusion and contradictory view-points. The central question, if and how the nature of childhood itself has changed, has led the author...
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The Exquisite Corpse of Ganymede: A Cursory Overview of an Ancient Gender Studies Discourse
This essay examines surviving traces of the Zeus and Ganymede myth and identifies two interwoven discourses on male love in antiquity: one, a tradition integral to a Cretan initiatory rite and its didactic nature evidenced by an analogous and opposite...
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The Penis-Care Information Gap: Preventing Improper Care of Intact Boys
A penis-care information gap exists in North America where most physicians and parents do not know how to care for an intact boy's penis, especially his foreskin. They lack basic knowledge and personal experience, which would allow them to advise or...
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Male University Transition Problems: A Guilt-Free Explanation
It is becoming widely recognized that far fewer young males than females are entering university. Blame is directed, for example, to the school system, feminism and parenting, but the fundamental reason is not something for which anyone should be blamed;...
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Lovers' Legends
Lovers' Legends by Andrew Calimach. New Rochelle: Haiduk Press, 2002, and Lovers' Legends Unbound translated by Andrew Calimach and Agnes Lev. New Rochelle, NY Haiduk Press, 2004.These two volumes, the second of which contains a CD of the stories printed...
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Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring

Editors' Welcome
With far too many scholarly journals out there now, why launch yet another? Hurried readers may never recognize what THYMOS is about unless they get past the first word to what follows: Journal of Boyhood Studies. That may happen in quite a few cases...
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Picturing Boys: Found Photographs and the Transformation of Boyhood in 1950s America
Systematic scrutiny of everyday photographs of American boys together suggests that, as never before, homophobia became a barrier for boys in 1950s America. In a time of high anxiety regarding the possible implications of male togetherness in the United...
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"Has Anyone Seen the Boy?": The Fate of the Boy in Becoming a Man
The topic of this article is the psychological meaning and consequences of the repression of a male's experience of being a boy in the course of his socialization to manhood. Although the eradication of the sense of being a boy is a requirement for attaining...
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BOY - Linguistic Anthropological Notes
This article proposes a linguistic anthropological approach to the notion BOY, drawing attention to diverse research methods including etymology, onomasiology, corpus analysis, semantics, discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and comparative ethnolinguistics....
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Boys at Gender-Play Inside the Muscular Christian Ideal
In elite boys' schools there is a level of anxiety about the perceived place of the curricular subject drama and how it might interact or interfere with the ironclad essentialist and homogenous masculinity promoted by elite all-boys' schools. The feminization...
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The Meaning of Difference. Young Gay Males' Experiences at School in Australia
This article is based on in-depth interviews with 14 young gay men aged between 18 and 25 years. Using narratives in a life-historical perspective the young men reflect upon their boyhood and adolescent years to highlight the many and varied issues confronting...
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Naughty Boys. Anti-Social Behaviour, ADHD and the Role of Culture
Naughty Boys. Anti-Social Behaviour, ADHD and the Role of Culture by Sami Timimi. London: Palgrave, 2005, xv + 245 pp., paper.Selfidentified as a "postmodern clinician," Sami Timimi is an Iraqi-born, British child psychiatrist who is a consultant for...
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