Western Criminology Review

Articles

Vol. 13, No. 3, November

Characteristics of Internationally Trafficked Stolen Vehicles along the U.S.-Mexico Border
Abstract: Trafficking of stolen vehicles has been the subject of few studies in the United States. Little is known about patterns and characteristics of vehicles that are stolen for international export. The current research constructs a logistic regression...
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2012 Critical Criminology & Justice Studies Conference Keynote Address: Rethinking Intervention: Consciousness, Solidarity, and Hope as Criminological Principles
Keywords: transformative intervention, rehabilitation, preventionWhat do I mean by "rethinking" intervention, and why do I think it matters?For a very long time, I've found myself deeply conflicted about the role of rehabilitation, or "treatment," in...
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The Marginalization of Critical Perspectives in Public Criminal Justice Core Curricula
Abstract: Although critical perspective courses in criminal justice programs have grown considerably since the 1960s, the failure of contemporary public criminal justice programs to require critical perspectives in their undergraduate core curricula...
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Observations on Student-Faculty Collaborative Research and the Ethics of Joint Publishing
Before his recent passing, Gil Geis submitted this article on faculty-student collaboration with publishing. You'll find the work here as an invitation for commentary by others on collaborative authorship. The next edition of WCR will include responses...
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Vol. 13, No. 2, August

Keynote Address: The Supreme Court Needs to Enter the 21st Century WSC Conference, 2012, Newport Beach, California
Keywords: Supreme Court, Fourth Amendment, technological surveillance,Technology has given the police an unprecedented ability to gather information about people. With increasing frequency courts face the question of when technological monitoring without...
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Incarcerated Sex Offenders' Perceptions of Family Relationships: Previous Experiences and Future Expectations
Abstract: Utilizing semi-structured interviews with 24 inmates in one medium security prison, this study examines how incarcerated sex offenders approaching release perceive previous experiences with and future expectations for their families. Observed...
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Specifying the Dynamic Relationships of General Strain, Coping, and Young Adult Crime
Abstract: General strain theory has been tested critically, but the development of the theory has lagged because tests of the full model are rare, and the integration and specification of conditioning variables that affect crime and deviance are not...
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Realignment in California: Policy and Research Implications
Keywords: California criminal justice policy, mass incarceration, prison reform, realignmentINTRODUCTIONCorrections policy in California is undergoing an historic shiftin response to a variety of pressures-budgetary, operational and judicial. In April,...
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Sex Offender Myths in Print Media: Separating Fact from Fiction in U.S. Newspapers
Abstract: The media sometimes present certain myths related to sex offenders that run contrary to the data supported by empirical research, such as identifying sex offenders as being compulsive, homogenous, specialists, and incapable of benefiting from...
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Vol. 13, No. 1, April

Is Emerging Adulthood Influencing Moffitt's Developmental Taxonomy? Adding the "Prolonged" Adolescent Offender
Abstract: The study of offender trajectories has been a prolific area of criminological research. However, few studies have incorporated the influence of emerging adulthood, a recently identified stage of the life course, on offending trajectories. The...
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Delinquent Friends and Reactions to Strain: An Examination of Direct and Indirect Pathways
Abstract: Strain theorists acknowledge that only some strained individuals become involved in delinquency. Thus, a necessary research objective is to determine the conditions under which strain results in deviant adaptations. The goal of this research...
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Drunk Driving in the United States: An Examination of Informal and Formal Factors to Explain Variation in DUI Enforcement across U.S. Counties
Abstract: This research aims to understand how informal non-legal factors, such as normative climates, and formal legal factors, such as open-container laws, seat-belt laws, and police force strength are related to variation in drunk driving (DUI) enforcement...
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Demographics and Homicide in Canada: A Fixed-Effects Analysis of the Role of Young Males on Changing Homicide Rates
Abstract: Canadian homicide rates have declined steadily since the mid-1970s, though this overall trend has been punctuated by temporal and regional fluctuations. It is almost consistently noted that young males are overrepresented in the interpersonal...
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Vol. 12, No. 3, November

Public Perceptions of School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs
Abstract: Prior research examining people's perceptions of SRO programs has focused on the views of four stakeholder groups: school administrators, teachers, parents, and students. Notably, however, no prior studies have assessed the views of the general...
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Blame the Media? the Influence of Primary News Source, Frequency of Usage, and Perceived Media Credibility on Punitive Attitudes
Abstract: Few studies examine the effect of media (particularly the Internet) on punitive attitudes of college students and none examine the credibility of sources of news that students consume. This study employs survey research to examine the effect...
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Examining the Intersection of Self-Control, Peer Association and Neutralization in Explaining Digital Piracy
Abstract: Digital piracy is becoming a common criminal behavior. However, criminologists do not have a firm understanding of how self-control, peer association, and neutralization come together to explain digital piracy. Using data from college students'...
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Early Adult Outcomes of Male Arrest Trajectories: Propensity versus Causation Effects
Abstract: This study examined early adult outcomes of differing arrest trajectories across childhood through early adulthood that were identified in prior research for 197 at-risk young men. Early adult outcomes were assessed at ages 27-28 to 29-30 years....
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The Influence of Nondiagnostic Information and Victim Stereotypes on Perceptions of Guilt
Abstract: Recent research has revealed that increasing nondiagnostic information about victims in rape trial scenarios decreases guilty verdicts. This finding contradicts several existing theoretical positions that predict nondiagnostic information about...
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Structural Shifts in Select Determinants of Crime with a Focus on Rural and Urban Differences
Abstract: In this study we offer a unique test of structural shifts in the influence of poverty and income inequality on crime rates. Using U.S. county level data drawn from the 1990 and 2000 centennial censuses and the FBI Uniform Crime Reports we uncover...
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Rush to Judgment: Prisoners' Views of Juvenile Justice
Abstract: Using qualitative interviews with adult prisoners who had previously been in some form of placement as juveniles, this study presents the perceptions of juvenile justice and its processes from a population who experienced them first-hand. Common...
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College Student Victims and Reporting Crime to the Police: The Influence of Collective Efficacy
Abstract: Campus crime and college student victimization are important social issues. Despite the existing research in this area, little is known about whether factors that influence police notification among college students are similar to those observed...
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Vol. 12, No. 2, August

Preface to the Special Issue: Critical Criminology: Mass Incarceration, Prevention, and Immigration
This volume of the Western Criminology Review is a special issue on critical criminology research and theory. Contributors look at how we conceive of and socially construct our views that become an embodiment of the state's power to perpetuate injustice....
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Decarceration Nation? Penal Downsizing and the Human Security Framework
Abstract: A federal judicial panel has recently ordered the state of California to reduce its landmark prison population by 40,000 inmates over two years, from 170,000 to around 130,000. Besides addressing worrisome fiscal problems, just how California...
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Keynote Address, Critical Criminology and Justice Studies Conference 2010 Honolulu: Classrooms or Cells1
Keywords: alternatives to incarceration; costs of incarceration; corrections and higher education spending; incarceration in Hawaii; critical criminologyHawaii, like many states, is facing a severe budget crisis, and that has meant that public higher...
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Is Prevention Inherently Good? A Deconstructionist Approach to Prevention Literature, Policy and Practice1
Abstract: Framing deconstruction as a useful tool prior to engaging in research and practice, this paper views the notion of "prevention" through a deconstructionist critique. By exploring prevention as a value-laden rather than value-neutral discourse,...
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Immigration Policy, Criminalization and the Growth of the Immigration Industrial Complex: Restriction, Expulsion, and Eradication of the Undocumented in the U.S. 1
Abstract: The stereotype of immigrants as a "criminal threat" has armed anti-immigrant sentiment and policy despite social scientists having consistently demonstrated that immigrants are less likely to engage in crime than are their U.S.-born counterparts....
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Advancing Critical Criminology through Anthropology
Abstract: Since its genesis, critical criminology has been committed to a critique of domination and to developing and exploring broader conceptions of "crime" to include "harms" that are not necessarily proscribed by law. Without diminishing the contributions...
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Vol. 12, No. 1, March

Defining Stalking: The Influence of Legal Factors, Extralegal Factors, and Particular Actions on Judgments of College Students
Abstract: Although research demonstrates that college students are at great risk for stalking occurrences (Fisher, Cullen, and Turner 2002), little scholarship exists on how students define stalking. In the current study, a 2 (offender/target gender:...
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An Analysis of the Mediating Effects of Social Relations and Controls on Neighborhood Crime Victimization
Abstract: Recent tests of systemic social disorganization theory focus on specifying types of informal and formal controls and their ability to mediate the impact of negative structural conditions on neighborhood crime rates. However, a majority of these...
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Normal Homicides, Normal Defendants: Finding Leniency in Oklahoma's Murder Conviction Machinery
Abstract: Data derived from Oklahoma Criminal Offender Records, Oklahoma Criminal Court of Appeals, and newspapers of record (1973-2008) were analyzed along with interviews of key criminal court officers, assessing the normal crimes concept (Sudnow 1965)...
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Not in My Name: An Investigation of Victims' Family Clemency Movements and Court Appointed Closure
Abstract: Purpose: The goals of this project are 1) to document the patterns of opposition to the death penalty promoted by victims' families following the ascendency of the retribution and closure arguments in support of capital punishment, and 2) to...
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Reciprocal Effects of Family Disruption and Crime: A Panel Study of Canadian Municipalities
Abstract: Using data of Canadian municipalities in 1996 and 2001, this study examined the reciprocal relationships between divorce, single-parenthood, and crime in both time-lag and simultaneous models. In the time-lag model, the reciprocal effects between...
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Vol. 11, No. 3, December

Who's to Blame? Elaborating the Role of Attributions in General Strain Theory*
Abstract: Agnew's general strain theory (GST) has motivated dozens of criminological studies over the past two decades. Borrowing in part from Cloward and Ohlin's model of delinquency, Agnew claimed that anger, a key component of GST, occurs when adolescents...
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The Cost of Substance Abuse: The Use of Administrative Data to Investigate Treatment Benefits in a Rural Mountain State
Abstract: Findings from cost-benefit evaluations have suggested that the cost of substance abuse treatment is covered by the economic benefits to society. In this research we measure the economic impact of substance abuse treatment in a rural mountain...
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Hedonic Calculus: Does Self Restraint Desire Matter?
Abstract: Tittle, Ward, and Grasmick (2004) developed the idea of "self-control desire" as a key in understanding variability in crime and deviance, above and beyond low self-control (ability). The current study investigated the interplay between self-control...
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Persistent versus Late Onset among Female Offenders: A Test of State Dependent and Population Heterogeneity Interpretations*
Abstract: Research into female offending has begun to explore the utility of different offending trajectories for females. The current research extends this new line of inquiry by employing both population heterogeneity and state dependent interpretations...
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Vol. 11, No. 2, July

The Waiver and Withdrawal of Death Penalty Appeals as "Extreme Communicative Acts"
Abstract: Since Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976)-the Supreme Court case that permitted the resumption of capital punishment in the United States-1203 executions have been carried out. One hundred and thirty-four (134) executions have involved "volunteers"...
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Communication Isolation as Reported by a Group of Deaf Texas Inmates
Abstract: Most profoundly deaf children are born into hearing families and often are not exposed to accessible (visual-gestural) language within the home environment. Much incidental communication and instruction is missed as a result. This is a qualitative...
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Methamphetamine Laboratories: The Geography of Drug Production
Abstract: There has been considerable public concern and legislative activity surrounding the issue of domestic methamphetamine production. What has not been extensively examined is the broader context within which domestic methamphetamine production...
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Victimless Deviance: Toward a Classification of Opposition Justifications
Abstract: Attitudes toward victimless deviance, predominantly drug use and various sexual behaviors, are explored using data from forty-nine semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants from various social and cultural backgrounds. The central...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, April

From Corrections to College: The Value of a Convict's Voice
Abstract: The rise in mass incarceration has been accompanied by an abandonment of first-hand, in-depth accounts of crime and incarceration. Too few criminologists have stepped foot inside a prison, let alone served time within its walls. Situated within...
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Keynote Address: Critical Criminology for a Global Age1
Keywords: critical criminology; crime and political economy; corporate and state crime; Iraq war; power and domination as crime; instrumental versus structural Marxism; state deviance; analogous social injuryA SHORT PREFACEI want to begin by thanking...
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Preface to the Special Issue: Discourse, Race and the State
This volume of the Western Criminology Review addresses the construction of racialized justice as a social and discursive process. Since its first appearance in criminological thinking 20 years ago, critical race theory has grown in significance. Originally...
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Victims' Rights and Public Safety? Unmasking Racial Politics in Crime Discourses Surrounding Parole Revocation for "Lifers" in California
Abstract: This paper reports on an intensive day-long symposium on Proposition 9 (also called the Victims' Bill of Rights Act, or Marsy's Law) held inside San Quentin, a maximum security prison for men in Northern California. This new law essentially...
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Notes on the Study of Language: Towards Critical Race Criminology
Abstract: In this paper I demonstrate that the study of language constitutes an effective platform for the sociological analysis of 'race' and 'crime.' I also establish that the study of justice-related language provides a powerful tool for the construction...
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From Child to Captive: Constructing Captivity in a Juvenile Institution
Abstract: Juvenile detention centers are not simply places that regulate and control the behavior of children accused of crimes. Nor are they places that "rehabilitate" or "fix" children in need. Instead, juvenile detention centers provide the social...
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Vol. 10, No. 1, June

Explaining Deviant Peer Associations: An Examination of Low Self-Control, Ethical Predispositions, Definitions, and Digital Piracy
Abstract: Digital piracy is an emerging criminal behavior. Criminological research has been successful in explaining intentions to commit digital piracy using several different theories. Social learning and self-control have been two of the theories...
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Internet Scallywags: A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Forms and Measurements of Digital Piracy
Abstract: Internet-based digital piracy has recently become a widespread occurrence. Despite this growth, few studies have attempted to apply criminological theory to the crime. This study tests the explanatory power of two criminological theories, general...
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The Effects of Race on Relationships with the Police: A Survey of African American and Latino Youths in Chicago
Abstract: Race is one of the most powerful variables explaining public attitudes toward the police. The majority of studies on race and perceptions of the police have explored differences between African Americans and Whites. The emphasis of previous...
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Conceiving of Sex as a Commodity: A Study of Arrested Customers of Female Street Prostitutes
Abstract: Framing prostitution as an economic exchange, this paper evaluates some of the consequences of conceiving of sex as a commodity rather than as an aspect of an intimate interpersonal relationship among the customers of prostitutes. Subjects...
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Vol. 9, No. 2, December

Family Structure and Parental Behavior: Identifying the Sources of Adolescent Self-Control
Abstract. According to Gottfredson and Hirschi and their general theory of crime (1990), self-control - defined as the degree to which individuals are vulnerable to temptation - is a relatively stable, universal trait that accounts for individual differences...
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Self-Control and Ethical Beliefs on the Social Learning of Intellectual Property Theft*
Abstract. Social learning theory has been identified as a strong predictor of various computer-related crimes, especially intellectual property theft (Higgins and Makin 2004; Hinduja 2006; Rogers 2001; Skinner and Fream 1997). Undoubtedly, the relationship...
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"The Tragic Meaning of Blood": Symbol, Myth, and the Construction of Criminology
Keynote address delivered at the 2006 Western Society of Criminology Conference, Seattle, February 25, 2006Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. It is my sincere honor and privilege to join you today. I am particularly delighted to have this opportunity...
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An Integrated Model of Juvenile Drug Use: A Cross-Demographic Groups Study
Abstract: This study tests the applicability of an integrated model of deviance - social bonding and learning theories - to drug use among a representative sample of U.S. adolescents (12-17 years old). A structural equation model (SEM) was estimated...
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Do Guns Matter? A Multi-Level Cross-National Examination of Gun Availability on Assault and Robbery Victimization
Abstract. This study examines the relationship between city levels of gun availability and individual assault and robbery victimization. Existing theoretical approaches to guns and crime are integrated with opportunity theory to provide a richer understanding...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, August

Looking Inside Zone V: Testing Social Disorganization Theory in Suburban Areas*
Abstract. Rapid suburbanization since the 1970s diversified the socioeconomic picture in suburbs, leading to an increase in crime and other social problems. In this study, social disorganization theory, developed mostly from studies conducted in large...
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Sticks and Stones and Broken Bones: The Influence of Parental Verbal Abuse on Peer Related Victimization
Abstract. Prior research on the effects of childhood maltreatment has focused primarily on the relationship between physical abuse and its impact on delinquent behavior. Although researchers have recently begun to recognize the importance of and to explore...
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Factors and Conditions Influencing the Use of Research by the Criminal Justice System
Whither We Are Tending"If we could know where we are, and whither we are tending, we could then better judge what to do, and how to do it," said Lincoln in his famous "house divided" speech in 1858 (Angle, 1991). While we might imagine that the debate...
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A Cross-National Test of Institutional Anomie Theory: Do the Strength of Other Social Institutions Mediate or Moderate the Effects of the Economy on the Rate of Crime?1
Abstract. This study presents a test of Messner and Rosenfeld's theory of institutional anomie. It employs cross-national data on the rates of homicide and theft, as well as a variety of indicators of the economy and of the ineffectiveness of non-economic...
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