Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology

Articles

Vol. 8, Annual

Helping Our Toddlers, Developing Our Children's Skills (HOT DOCS): A Problem-Solving Approach for Parents of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Overview of Young Children with ASD Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that impairs social skills and interactions, delays communication, and is marked by restricted and repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association...
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Parenting Infants: Relative Importance of Parenting Characteristics and Related Behaviors
Parenting is well recognized as an important influence on child development and much research has linked parenting with positive and negative child outcomes (e.g., Baumrind, Larzelere, & Owens, 2010). For example, parenting influences children's...
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Preschoolers' Sleep: Current U.S. Community Data within a Historical and Sociocultural Context
Preschoolers' Sleep Sleep is a critically important yet understudied phenomenon in psychology and education. Parents and others often talk about preschoolers' sleep. They express concerns ranging from how much sleep is appropriate to difficulties...
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A Critical Review of Committed Compliance
The dictionary defines compliance as "the act or process of complying to a desire, demand, proposal, or regimen" (Merriam-Webster, Retrieved from http:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary). This definition, although broad in scope, does not take into...
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Vol. 7, Annual

Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Conflict and Closeness in Parent-Child Relationships during Early Childhood
The quality of the relational bond between parent and child affects children's emotional development, school performance, and social growth. Parents perceive their relationships with their children in a variety of ways and numerous researchers have...
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Evaluating Outcomes of a Behavioral Parent Training Program for Caregivers of Young Children: Waitlist Control vs. Immediate Treatment
Rates of early emerging challenging behavior in young children (ages 18 months to 7 years) continue to increase each year. Current estimates suggest that nearly 25% of otherwise healthy and typically developing young children have mild to moderate...
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Development of the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Families of Young Children with Developmental Delays
Quality of life has emerged as an important area of research in psychological and medical arenas, yet little research has been conducted with very young children (under age 3 years) and families, particularly those with developmental delays and disabilities...
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Interrater Reliability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Pre-K (CLASS Pre-K)
The quality of children's relationships with their primary teachers has been identified as one of the most powerful factors related to student learning and future academic success (La Paro & Pianta, 2000; Pianta, La Paro, Payne, Cox, & Bradley,...
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Syndromes of Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Teachers and Caregivers in 14 Societies Using the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF)
It is now widely recognized that very young children can experience significant emotional and behavioral problems, and that these problems should not be ignored. A recent editorial in a leading child and adolescent psychiatry journal proclaimed that...
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Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Two-Year-Olds: Links to Mother-Toddler Emotion Processes
The developmental processes associated with emotion and emotion regulation are fundamental to early mental health and psychopathology (Cole & Deater-Deckard, 2009; Izard, Youngstrom, Fine, Mostow, & Trentacosta, 2006). Indeed, early difficulties...
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Vol. 6, Annual

Helping Our Toddlers, Developing Our Children's Skills (HOT DOCS): A Parenting Intervention to Prevent and Address Challenging Behavior in Young Children
After nearly three decades of cross-disciplinary research, professionals in the fields of psychology, education, and medicine are no longer surprised that their client lists, student rosters, and appointment schedules are filled with young children...
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Review of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition
The original Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) was published in 1984 based on the concept of milestones, which refer to certain skills and behaviors that children typically develop at specific time periods in their lives (Newborg, Stock, Wnek,...
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Understanding Parent Reports of Children's Attention Behaviors: Role of Children's Attention Skills, Temperament, and Home Environment
Child attention problems are typically assessed using parent reports of attention on behavioral rating scales (Diamond & Squires, 1993; Sax & Kautz, 2003; Tripp, Schaughency, & Bronwyn, 2006). Previous research has found parent reports...
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Associations among Young Children's Temperament, Parents' Perceptions of Their Young Children, and Characteristics of the Parent-Young Child Relationship
Research has suggested that young children's temperament and parents' behaviors are interrelated (Calkins, Hungerford, & Dedmon, 2004; Rubin, Burgess, Dwyer, & Hastings, 2003). In many research studies, young children's temperament is thought...
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Maternal Attributional Style and Infant Attachment
In Mary Ainsworth's (Ainsworth et al., 1978) seminal examination of maternal factors that shape the development of the caregiver-infant attachment relationship, maternal sensitivity, responsiveness, and appropriately stimulating play were associated...
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Current Measures for Assessing Parenting of Young Children
Research links parenting with a host of child outcome variables, such as academic achievement (Collins, Maccoby, Steinberg, Hetherington, & Bornstein, 2000), cognitive development (Ryan, Martin, & Brooks-Gunn, 2006), dropping out of school...
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Challenges and Considerations When Transitioning Preschoolers with Complex Medical Histories to Kindergarten
Children with complex medical histories and special needs, for which there is a myriad of potential etiologies (e.g., cerebral palsy, brain injury, genetic disorders, and cancer), encounter significant challenges when transitioning through the education...
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Vol. 5, Annual

The Evolution of Medication Use and Misuse for Young Children and Infants: Changing the Roles of Early Childhood Specialists and Educators to Meet New Challenges and Concerns
The science and clinical practice of using medications with young children and infants has important implications for the study of development and psychopathology. The investigation of interventions for developmental disabilities is not complete without...
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The Use of Antidepressant Medications in Early Childhood: Prevalence, Efficacy, and Risk
The number of young children (birth to age 5) prescribed psychotropic medications to treat emotional, behavioral, and/or psychiatric disturbances has increased significantly over the past 2 decades. Prescription rates for young children receiving psychotropic...
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Young Children with Developmental Disabilities and Atypical Antipsychotic Medications: Dual Diagnosis, Direction, and Debate
Intensive early behavioral interventions are the treatment of choice for children with autism and many other developmental disabilities, as these children demonstrate symptoms such as aggression, hyperactivity/impulsivity, self-injurious behaviors,...
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Preschool ADHD and Medication ... More Study Needed?!
The purpose of this work is to provide an examination of the diagnosis of ADHD, the efficacy of the medication use for controlling ADHD symptoms, and the concerns with medication use for ADHD in preschool populations. Thus, the perceived validity...
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Double Jeopardy in the Low-Income Child: The Case of Antibiotic Use
Children are generally healthy, but societal investment to optimize the health of children is a key public health strategy to prevent many chronic conditions in adulthood. Children are not little adults. They differ from adults with respect to disease...
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Error, Misuse, and Abuse of Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications for Young Children
In the United States, young children (i.e., less than 5 years old) and infants (i.e., less than 2 years old) require 98,000 visits to urgent care or emergency rooms each year due to medication error, misuse, or abuse (Chien, Marriott, Ashby, &...
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Medication Research for Young Children in Community Practice: Retrospect and Prospect. A Commentary
It is a pleasure to share reflections on the Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology's (JECIP) special issue on medication use in very young children. The scope of topics covered is impressive - from reviews of major psychiatric drug classes...
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Stressful Life Events Experienced by Clinically Referred Foster Care and Nonfoster Care Children
Existing research on children living in foster care has shown that these children face a multitude of life stressors both before and during their time in foster care. Silver (1999) reported that the majority of children in foster care are born into...
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Evaluation of the Adults and Children Together (Act) against Violence Training Program with Child Care Providers
The aim of the present study was to build on previous research by developing a reliable and valid outcome measure. More specifically, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the level of skill and knowledge gain of child care providers who participated...
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Anxiety in Early Childhood: What Do We Know?
Anxiety is frequently cited as one of the most common mental health problems experienced by children and adolescents (e.g., Morris & March, 2004), yet it becomes apparent in perusing recently published literature that a dearth of studies related...
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Preschool Assessment: The Diagnostic Classroom Model
As a nation, there has been a growing public commitment to early childhood education programs, not only with the passage of federal laws and amendments, but also with increased awareness of the importance of early identification of developmental and...
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Vol. 4, Annual

Child Care and Relationships: Understanding Relationships and Relationship Interventions
For millions of children and families, child care is an integral component of their developmental contexts. With large numbers of children experiencing non-maternal child care, issues as well as concerns about children's outcomes are being vigorously...
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Early Emotional Availability: Predictive of Pre-Kindergarten Relationships among Mexican-Heritage Children?
A large body of literature based primarily on dominant culture parents and children in the United States suggests that early mother-child interaction contributes to children's subsequent social competence with teachers and peers (for a review of this...
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Using the Emotional Availability Scales along the Child Care Continuum
Although previous studies on emotional availability involve parents and children, the authors of the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS) suggest that the use of these scales are also appropriate with non-parental caregivers. The authors of the EAS...
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The Emotional Availability (EA) Intervention with Child Care Professionals
After almost a decade of basic science research on the Emotional Availability Scales, an intervention program based on the assessment instrument was developed. The intervention involves the training of parents and professional development for child...
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Enhancing Parent-Provider Relationships and Communication in Infant and Toddler Classrooms
Young children develop in the context of their relationships with important others in their environments: parents, child care providers, and peers. Moreover, the quality of these relationships has implications for children's adaptation in other contexts....
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Emotional Availability and the Complexity of Child Care: A Commentary
Changing perceptions about young children's needs have led to emphasizing relationships between children and their child-care providers and their added significance as markers of quality of care, mostly in the family, but also in group settings (Rutter...
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Is Maternal Behavior in the Strange Situation Related to Infant Attachment?
In Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, and Wall's (1978) seminal examination of maternal factors that shape the development of the caregiver-infant attachment relationship in a sample of low-risk mothers in the infant's first year, several maternal behaviors...
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Positive Behavior Supports and Pediatric Feeding Disorders of Early Childhood: A Case Study
Feeding Problems Feeding problems are very commonly reported by families of young children, with estimates ranging from 25% of infants and young children to as high as 62% for toddlers, most of which resolve without intervention (Chatoor, 2002;...
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An Evaluation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire for Use with Children from Low-Income Families
The effects of poverty on children's later development have been well documented. In particular, research has demonstrated that children living in poverty are at greater risk for poor academic achievement as well as specific behavioral problems than...
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Vol. 3, Annual

Attachment Theory: Implications for Practice in Schools
Bowlby's (1969, 1988) theory of attachment highlights the importance of the early parent-child relationship in facilitating appropriate emotional, social, and cognitive development in children (Ainsworth, 1989; Bowlby, 1988; Brazelton & Greenspan,...
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Applications of Attachment Theory in School Psychology
School psychologists have traditionally focused on prevention, assessment, and intervention strategies for a myriad of factors that influence school performance. Skills that enhance the performance of these tasks include a thorough knowledge of both...
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Attachment Intervention Programs: A Guide for School Psychologists
School psychologists hold increasingly expanding roles in American school systems (Fagan, 2002). Once limited to intelligence testing and certifying children for special education classes, today they consult with teachers regarding behavior problems,...
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Infant and Child Attachment as It Relates to School-Based Outcomes
For children, school is an environment in which social expectations for behavior must be learned, and the repercussions of success or failure can be enduring. Two theories of human development, Bowlby's (1987) model of attachment and MacDonald and...
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Interventions Based on Attachment Theory: A Critical Analysis
Over the past decade, several researchers have evaluated the efficacy of interventions predicated on elements of attachment theory. The common denominator of these interventions is their focus on improving the quality of the caregiver-child relationship....
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Building School-Based Interventions on Attachment Theory and Research
The attachment theory proposed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth has been one of the most successful paradigms introduced to psychology in the last half century. Because of its salience and precision, the theory led to an outpouring of research and...
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Attachment in the Schools: Toward Attachment-Based Curricula
Research on child attachment during the school-age years is a relatively new area of research. As children get older, they depend less on behavioral proximity to express their attachment needs. Not only are older children better able to tolerate separations...
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Child Mental Representations of Attachment When Mothers Are Traumatized: The Relationship of Family-Drawings to Story-Stem Completion
Clinicians have long relied on child drawings to inform psychiatric assessment (Burns & Kaufman, 1972; DiLeo, 1973; Koppitz, 1966; Shapiro & Stine, 1965; Zalsman et al., 2000). Children's drawings have often been used to provide access to the...
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Young Selectively Mute English Language Learners: School-Based Intervention Strategies
Selective mutism (SM) is characterized by a refusal to speak in specific social settings, such as school, despite the ability to speak in other settings, such as the home (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The extent to which a selectively mute...
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Mothers' Dependent and Self-Critical Depressive Experience Is Related to Speech Content with Infants
Maternal depression is associated with negative consequences for motherinfant interaction and infant development regardless of whether depression is defined by clinician-based diagnosis or by self-report (Gitlin & Pasnau, 1989; Murray & Cooper,...
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Examining Attention Networks in Preschool Children Born with Very Low Birth Weights
Children born prematurely are often at risk for cognitive and school-related problems (Botting, Powls, Cooke, & Marlow, 1998; Breslau & Chilcoat, 2000; Davis, Burns, Snyder, Dossett, & Wilkerson, 2004; Horwood, Mogridge, & Darlow, 1998;...
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Structural Validity of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Measure of Parental Beliefs about School Readiness
Since the establishment of the National Education Goals in the late 1980s, professionals have been trying to determine not only the meaning of school readiness but also the methods to assess and ensure readiness for all children beginning school (Meisels,...
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Bayley III: A Preliminary Overview
The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development--Third Edition (Bayley-III; Bayley, 2006) is the latest revision of the Bayley scales (Bayley, 1969, 1993), a widely utilized standardized instrument designed to individually assess the developmental...
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Vol. 2, Annual

History and Current Status of the Association of Early Childhood and Infant Psychologists (AECIP)
The Association of Early Childhood and Infant Psychologists (AECIP) is the new organizational name for the New York Association of Early Childhood and Infant Psychologists (NYAECIP). Given the expanding interest from psychologists working within early...
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Bilingual Preschoolers: Implications for the Development of Identity and Self-Concept
A vast array of literature on bilingualism exists and much research, as well as commentary continues to be generated from a wide range of perspectives and disciplines. The fields of psychology, psychiatry, speech and language, education, linguistics,...
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Implementing and Evaluating a National Early Violence Prevention Program at the Local Level: Lessons from ACT (Adults and Children Together) against Violence
Although the overall rates of violent crimes have declined since the 1970s, children comprise an alarming proportion of observers, perpetrators, and victims of violence (U.S. Department of Justice, 2000). The World Health Organization (2002) estimates...
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The ACT against Violence Training Program: Targeting Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers
During the 1990s, frightening predictions arose indicating an approaching storm of juvenile violence. Terms "such as 'juvenile super predator', 'coming blood bath', and 'crime time bomb' suggested that, the nation was heading toward an unavoidable...
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Evaluation of a Curriculum Designed for Caregivers of Young Children with Challenging Behavior
Increasingly, evidence supports the use of behavioral parent training programs towards reducing the development and persistence of problem behavior and improving parent-child relationships (Gross et al., 2003; Kazdin, 1997; Maughan, Christiansen, Jenson,...
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Early Intervention Services: Family Preferences in Identifying Natural Environments
The Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities, a federal initiative implemented in 1986, espoused the crucial role for early intervention services for young children, birth through age 3. This program, currently known as...
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Parenting Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children: Contemporary Research in Relation to the Parent Development Theory
Current parenting research consistently points to the importance of, and developmental consequences associated with, parenting young children (e.g., Lohaus, Keller, Ball, Voelker, & Elben, 2004). Much of the research is rich in scope and relates...
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Is There a Relationship between Language Delays and Behavior and Socialization Problems in Toddlers?
Introduction There is a large literature indicating that language delay is associated with academic and behavior/emotional problems at school age (e.g., Beitchman, Wilson, Brownlie, Walters, & Lancee, 1996; Benasich, Curtiss, & Tallal, 1993;...
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A Model for Assessing Preschool Children with Attention and Activity Regulation Problems
During the preschool years, children must learn the skills necessary to attend kindergarten "ready to learn," however, many preschool children exhibit problems with attention and activity regulation that interfere with this developmental goal. In fact,...
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Play-Based Interventions
Importance of Play Birds fly, fish swim and children play. Play is as natural to children as breathing. It is the child's natural language, with toys as their words. It is the universal expression of children and it can transcend differences in...
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Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI) in Early Childhood: Challenges and Practical Guidelines
The early childhood years are increasingly being identified as the sensitive period when the foundation for academic skills are learned, conceptualized and reinforced. Children entering kindergarten are expected to have prerequisite, "pre-academic,"...
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An Evaluation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire for Use with Very Low Birth Weight Preschoolers
Children born prematurely are at risk for a variety of social, behavioral, and academic problems. Although some VLBW children have major disabilities resulting from their premature birth and/or subsequent medical complications, the majority of these...
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Continuing Education Interests of Licensed New York State Psychologists Serving the Zero to Five-Year-Old Population
Psychology is a field that is constantly evolving. In order to meet the challenges of this increasingly dynamic field, the American Psychological Association (APA) continues to add subspecialties within psychology, into its overall framework. These...
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Vol. 1, Annual

New York Association of Early Childhood and Infant Psychologists (NYAECIP): Background, History, and Current Status
The New York Association of Early Childhood and Infant Psychologists (NYAECIP) is a professional organization, which was created in 1997. Prior to the creation of this professional organization, a number of New York City psychologists interested in...
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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children: Diagnostic Considerations
Prevalence of Trauma Exposure Young children are frequently exposed to traumatic events in the United States and throughout the world. An appreciation of the prevalence of trauma exposure and the indicators of negative reactions to stress is critical...
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The ACT Training Program: The Future of Violence Prevention Aimed at Young Children and Their Caregivers
There are a number of early violence prevention programs that have been evaluated with regard to their success at reducing the effects of violence on young children. These programs include Childreach (Goodwin, Pacey, & Grace, 2003), Second Step:...
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Giving Psychology Away: Educating Adults to ACT against Early Childhood Violence
After decades of involvement (in the forefront of behavioral research, publications, and professional meetings) addressing aggression and violence, the American Psychological Association Public Interest Directorate wanted to "give psychology away"...
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Parent Development Theory: Understanding Parents, Parenting Perceptions and Parenting Behaviors
For the importance of parenting, with the long-term implications for children, families, and society, there is precious little psychological theory specifically on parents and parent development. And, while there are many parent education programs...
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Parental Perceptions and Preschoolers with Disabilities: An Investigation of Response Variations
Family-centered services represent a philosophical hallmark in early childhood intervention. Advancing from earlier child-centered, professional-driven notions, legislative mandates emphasizing full family involvement via the Individuals with Disabilities...
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Emotional Availability Is Predictive of the Emotional Aspects of Children's "School Readiness"
Pathways to successful school adjustment are set early in the educational process. Evidence suggests that social and relational processes in the early years of school play a key role in establishing the foundation for a child's later adaptation to...
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Dynamic Assessment with Young Children: We've Come a Long Way Baby!
In 1983 I first discussed the relevance of dynamic assessment (DA) for preschool children. At that time, the primary models had not yet been applied with individuals of this age, and specific procedures that were even remotely dynamic and appropriate...
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The Reliability and Discriminant Validity of the Social Interactive Coding System with Language Delayed Preschoolers
Both language and social interaction skills have been considered important components of definitions of social competence. Researchers have argued that language and communication ability play a critical role in one's social interaction success and...
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