East Asian Archives of Psychiatry

Articles

Vol. 24, No. 1, March

Translation and Validation of the Chinese Version of the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale for Patients with Mental Illness in Hong Kong
Introduction Quality of life (QOL) is a subjective experience and QOL measurements must rely on the clients' self reports. Quality-of-life outcomes are useful in the assessment of mental and social wellbeing and for informed health care decision-making,...
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Association of Panic Disorder with Quality of Life among Individuals with Headache
Introduction Headache is a common cause for medical consultation. (1) Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common cause for primary headache (69%), followed by migraine headache (16%). (2) Headache often results in considerable disability and...
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Comparative Study on Attitudes and Psychological Problems of Mothers towards Their Children with Developmental Disability
Introduction Parenting a child with developmental disability (DD) is an eternal process that affects parents and other family members. (1,2) Although there is no denying the significant roles of both parents in raising a child with DD, mothers are...
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A Thai Version of Mindfulness Questionnaire: Srithanya Sati Scale
Introduction The concept of mindfulness in Thailand traditionally follows the Noble Truth and the Three Characteristics of Theravada Buddhism (impermanence, suffering, and not self). (1-3) There are only few studies on the application of mindfulness...
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The Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey: Background and Study Design
Rising Burden of Mental Disorders Globally, mental disorders have emerged as an important health care challenge. It is well documented that people with severe mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia are associated with significant disability...
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Outcomes of SARS Survivors in China: Not Only Physical and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities
March 2013 marks the tenth anniversary of the outbreak of a serious form of atypical pneumonia called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which spread rapidly around the world. In addition to briefly reviewing the ensuing chaos and loss of life,...
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Vol. 23, No. 4, December

Characteristics of Unrecognised Bipolar Disorder in Patients Treated for Major Depressive Disorder in China: General versus Psychiatric Hospitals
Introduction In clinical practice, depressive episodes in bipolar disorders (BD) are typically more frequent and last longer than manic or hypomanic episodes. (1) Therefore, patients with BD are more likely to be misdiagnosed and treated for a major...
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Psychiatric Morbidity in Chinese Women after Cervical Cancer Treatment in a Regional Gynaecology Clinic
Introduction Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide according to the latest cancer statistics. (1) In Hong Kong, cervical cancer is the seventh most common cancer among females. The median age at diagnosis is 53 years....
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Association between Late-Onset Depression and Incident Dementia in Chinese Older Persons
Introduction The relationship between cognitive status and depressive symptoms and their effect on functional decline is of clinical and public health significance, because such symptoms and functional disability are common, frequently co-exist,...
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Cognitive and Affective Perspectives on Formation and Maintenance of Grandiose Delusions of a Patient with Schizophrenia
Introduction Grandiose delusions (GDs) are defined as the false beliefs of having inflated worth, power, knowledge, or a special identity, which are firmly sustained despite undeniable evidence to the contrary. (1) Grandiose delusions are the third...
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Mummification in a Chinese Patient with Grief: A Morbid Symptom or a Cultural Practice?
Introduction The word 'mummification' is derived from the Latin word 'mumia', which means black bitumen--the substance used for preservation of the body after death in Egypt. However, in psychiatry, mummification is not a religious ritual but a...
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Current Science and Clinical Practice
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Current Science and Clinical Practice Editor: Joseph Zohar John Wiley & Sons, Inc. USD 100.00; pp358; ISBN: 978-0470711255 We could not deny the fact that each and everyone of us have experienced some...
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Early Psychosis Intervention: A Culturally Adaptive Clinical Guide
Early Psychosis Intervention: A Culturally Adaptive Clinical Guide Editors: Eric Yu-Hai Chen, Helen Lee, Gloria Hoi-Kei Chan, Gloria Hoi-Yan Wong Hong Kong University Press USD 45.00;pp416; ISBN: 978-9888139927 With the advances in medical...
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Vol. 23, No. 3, September

Dementia-An 'Old' Disorder with New Perspectives
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the commonest cause of dementia, was first described by Dr Alois Alzheimer more than 100 years ago. Unlike most mental disorders, neuropathological changes associated with AD represented by neurofibrillary tangles and senile...
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Adoption of Two Standard Deviation Notions of Mental Retardation for the Diagnosis of Dementia
One day an old gentleman visited my memory clinic. He was a very old retired university professor. He was intolerably good at playing Paduk. Hardly surprising, he could think a mind-boggling 10 to 15 moves ahead. In recent months, he recognised his...
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Adaptation of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for Elderly Filipino Patients
Introduction Dementia is a progressive brain dysfunction involving memory, language, gnosis, praxis, and executive function. The cognitive impairment is sufficient to interfere with a patient's ability to function independently. (1) Dementia also...
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Differences in Brain Metabolism Associated with Agitation and Depression in Alzheimer's Disease
Introduction The behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and responsible for substantial suffering endured by patients and caregivers. Although numerous studies have...
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Initial Evaluation of the Training Programme for Health Care Professionals on the Use of Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Dementia
Introduction As in other developing countries, Malaysia is experiencing a rapid rise in the number of elderly persons in the population. Moreover, it is predicted that the proportion will continue to increase from the current 8% to 12% by the year...
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Spiritual Activity Is Associated with Better Cognitive Function in Old Age
Introduction Population ageing is taking place worldwide. According to the United Nation Population Division, the proportion of people aged 60 years or older has increased from 11% (645,546) in 2003 to 13.1% (955,243) in 2013, and is projected to...
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Study of Lipids, Insulin Metabolism, and Paraoxonase-2-311 Polymorphism in Patients with Different Subtypes of Alzheimer's Disease (Translated Version)
Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common types of senile dementia, is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Alzheimer's disease has become a major public health and social problem in both developed and developing...
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The Relationship between Primary Progressive Aphasia and Neurodegenerative Dementia
Introduction Progressive aphasia, which results from a neurodegenerative disease, is characterised by a progressive loss of specific language functions with relative sparing of other cognitive domains. The understanding of this syndrome generally...
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Clinical Remission of Late-Onset Depression in Elderly Chinese: A Short-Term Outcome Study
Introduction Late-onset depression is a heterogeneous syndrome that includes patients with a high medical burden and neurologic disorders that may or may not be clinically evident when the depression first appears. A review of elderly community...
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The ECT Handbook, 3rd Edition
The ECT Handbook, 3rd Edition Authors: Jonathan Waite, Andrew Easton RCPsych Publications USD 90.00; pp244; ISBN: 978-1908020581 This edition of The ECT Handbook is the fourth report of the Special Committee on Electroconvulsive Therapy...
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Suicide and Culture: Understanding the Context
Suicide and Culture: Understanding the Context Authors: Erminia Colucci, David Lester Hogrefe Publishing USD 42.18;pp270; ISBN: 978-0889374362 This is a relatively short text filled with powerful epistemological (belief-dependent) arguments...
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Vol. 23, No. 2, June

Community Treatment Orders: State of the Evidence
Legislation to allow for the compulsory supervision and treatment of mentally disordered individuals outside hospital has become a feature of several health care systems over the past 30 years. Various terms are used, most frequently mandated outpatient...
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Antisocial Personality Disorder Subscale (Chinese Version) of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders: Validation Study in Cantonese-Speaking Hong Kong Chinese
Introduction Violence, according to the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, is defined as "actions or words which are intended to hurt people". Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is described by the DSM-IV-TR as a pervasive pattern of disregard...
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Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Its Correlates in Caregivers of Schizophrenia: A Study from North India
Introduction It is increasingly recognised that caring for an ill relative can also be a source of positive change in a person's life. Although such studies are few (compared with those on caregiver burden), they suggest that caregiving also has...
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Symptoms and Aetiology of Delirium: A Comparison of Elderly and Adult Patients
Introduction Even though delirium is a common clinical entity, diagnosing and managing those affected can be extremely challenging due to its broad-based phenomenology. Thus, a clearer delineation of phenomenology can improve the diagnosis and management...
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Psychopathology, Cognitive Function, and Social Functioning of Patients with Schizophrenia
Introduction Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterised by a variety of signs and symptoms. The clinical phenomena associated with schizophrenia can be grouped into positive and negative clusters. (1) The positive cluster includes phenomena...
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Vol. 23, No. 1, March

Public Mental Health-What Is to Be Done?
Mental health has been an integral part of an individual's well-being, although there have been difficulties in defining it and in whether mental illness should be seen as the opposite end of this spectrum. Sartorius (1) defined mental health as a...
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Usefulness of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for Screening for Psychiatric Morbidity in Chinese Patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction Vision loss, or the fear of it, is associated with varying degrees of psychological burden greater than the distress resulting from other forms of sensory impairment. Vision loss impacts greatly on...
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Attitudes in the Management of Patients with Dementia: Comparison in Doctors with and without Special Training
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] Introduction Dementia is known to have a high prevalence worldwide. The alarming rate at which populations are ageing and the longer lifespans evident around the world will make it a dominant issue in the coming...
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Metabolic Complications of Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Medications-An Updated Review
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors comprising obesity (central and abdominal), dyslipidaemias, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance (or hyperinsulinaemia), and hypertension, and is...
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Where There Is No Child Psychiatrist: A Mental Health Care Manual
Where There is no Child Psychiatrist: A Mental Health Care Manuel Authors: Valsamma Eapen, Philip Graham, Shoba Srinath RCPsych Publications USD 20.00;pp208; ISBN 978-1901242751 Mental health problems are common in the child and adolescent...
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The Battered Woman Syndrome: 3rd Edition
The Battered Woman Syndrome: 3rd edition Editor: Lenore E. A. Walker Springer Publishing Company, LLC. US$51.70 (pb); pp488; ISBN 978-0-8261-4315-0 Violence against women and girls causes pain, disability, and death to an untold number...
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Vol. 22, No. 4, December

Recent Developments in Dementia: From New Diagnostic Criteria to a New Name
In the past decade, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of various forms of dementia. In particular, there have been remarkable developments in the use of biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
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Violence among Psychiatric Inpatients: A Victim's Perspective
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction In India, for more than 50 years, there was a practice of involving family members in the caretaking process for inpatients by asking them to stay with the patient during the period of hospitalisation....
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Prevalence and Type of Functional Somatic Complaints in Patients with First-Episode Depression
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction Depressive disorder is currently understood the world over by the diagnostic criteria as proposed by the ICD-10 (Mental and Behavioural Disorders) (1) and DSM-IV-TR. (2) A study from India (3) reported...
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Clinical Characteristics of Cough Mixture Abusers Referred to Three Substance Abuse Clinics in Hong Kong: A Retrospective Study
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction In the US, up to 4.9% of 12th graders reported lifetime misuse of cough medicine, with 3.7% reporting misuse within the previous 12 months. (1) In the 2008/2009 survey of drug use among students conducted...
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Psychiatric Morbidity in Chinese Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in a Local Infectious Disease Clinic
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem, and is one of the commonest infections in the world. The virus can cause both acute and chronic infections in humans. Chronic hepatitis...
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Vol. 22, No. 3, September

Early Intervention for Psychosis in Asia
It is now just over a decade since the first early intervention for psychosis programmes were established in Asia and, in the intervening years, a number of programmes have been developed in various Asian cities. There is growing interest in early...
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Vol. 22, No. 2, June

Healing Trauma: A Professional Guide
Healing Trauma: a Professional Guide Editors: Kitty K. Wu, Catherine S. Tang, Eugenie Y. Leung Hong Kong University Press USD 29.00; pp379; ISBN 978-9888028979 People feel overwhelmed, frightened, and beyond control in traumatic experiences....
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Vol. 22, No. 1, March

Cognitive Function, Functional Performance and Severity of Depression in Chinese Older Persons with Late-Onset Depression
Introduction Depression in late life is associated with significant morbidity, including deficits in a range of cognitive functions and considerable functional impairment and disability. The relationship between cognitive status and depressive symptoms...
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A Questionnaire Survey on Attitudes and Understanding towards Mental Disorders
Introduction Stigma and discrimination associated with psychiatric illness have been evident for as long as such illness has existed. (1) Despite the high prevalences of mental health problems, societies continue to hold deep-rooted, culturally...
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Cognitive and Functional Impairment in Chinese Elderly with Late-Onset Depression
Introduction Given that the personal and public burdens of both depression and cognitive impairment are likely to increase along with the ageing population, it is important for mental health professionals to better understand the characteristics...
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Acute Mental Disturbance Caused by Synthetic Cannabinoid: A Potential Emerging Substance of Abuse in Hong Kong
Introduction Reports of synthetic cannabinoid abuse in the form of a 'herbal smoking blend' or incense (often with the statement 'not for human consumption') began to emerge in the early to mid-2000s. Best known by the brand names 'Spice' and 'K2',...
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Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Clinical Manual
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: a Clinical Manual Authors: Deborah L. Cabaniss, Sabrina Cherry, Carolyn J. Douglas, Anna R. Schwartz Wiley-Blackwell Publishing USD 82.50;pp379; ISBN: 978-0470684719 When talking about psychodynamic psychotherapy,...
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Serum Prolactin Levels and the Acute-Phase Efficacy in Drug-Naive Schizophrenia Treated with Ziprasidone and Olanzapine (Translated Version)
Introduction Ziprasidone is a new atypical antipsychotic drug approved for use in the United States in 2001 and in Mainland China in 2007. Olanzapine was approved for use in the United States in 1996 and in Mainland China in 1999. Worldwide, both...
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Vol. 21, No. 4, December

Factors Associated with Social Interaction Anxiety among Chinese Adolescents
Introduction It has long been recognised that social anxiety is a common disorder among children and adolescents. (1) In large-scale cross-sectional and longitudinal studies mainly conducted in North America, European countries, and New Zealand,...
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An Indian Adaptation of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire: Similarities and Differences in Assessment of Caregiver Burden
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Introduction Caregiver burden has been defined by Platt as "the presence of problems, difficulties or adverse events which affect the life (lives) of the psychiatric patient's significant others (e.g. members...
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Modulating Factors That Preserve Cognitive Function in Healthy Ageing
Introduction Successful ageing is a concept that has received increasing attention. Paradoxical to the convention of ageing which signifies process of degeneration and loss of function, successful ageing embraces the need for physical, mental, and...
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Inhalant Abuse: A Study from a Tertiary Care De-Addiction Clinic
Introduction Inhalants refer to a group of psychoactive substances that get transformed to vapours and produce mind-altering effects. Inhalant use has been considered one of the most dangerous forms of substance abuse, even leading to death and...
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Parental Psychological Symptoms and Familial Risk Factors of Children and Adolescents Who Exhibit School Refusal
Introduction Studies dealing with school refusal (SR), which is a short- and long-term stressful condition for both parents and school personnel, have been reported in the literature since the last century. Today SR is defined as a child's inability...
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Trauma Practice-Tools for Stabilization and Recovery (Second and Expanded Edition)
Trauma Practice--Tools for Stabilization and Recovery (Second and Expanded Edition) Authors: Anna B Baranowsky, J. Eric Gentry, D. Franklin Schultz Hogrefe Publishing USD49.00; pp188; 978-0-88937-380-8 In our clinical practices, most of...
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Vol. 21, No. 3, September

Evidence-Based Practice in Suicidology. A Source Book
Evidence-based Practice in Suicidology. A Source Book Editors: Maurizio Pompili, Roberto Tatarelli Hogrefe Publishing USD98; pp384; ISBN 978-0-88937-383-9 This condensed single-volume source book, contributed by world's leading researchers...
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Vol. 21, No. 2, June

Chaos and Its Influence on Children's Development: An Ecological Perspective
Chaos and Its Influence on Children's Development: an Ecological Perspective Editors: Gary W. Evans, Theodore D. Wachs American Psychological Association USD60; pp312; ISBN 978-1433805653 During the last decade, developmental psychologists...
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Vol. 21, No. 1, March

A Six-to-Ten Weeks' Follow-Up Study on the Effects of Olanzapine on Abdominal Fat and Other Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Psychoses-An Imaging-Based Study with Controls
Introduction Evidence suggests that patients taking certain atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine have various metabolic abnormalities like hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes mellitus, which may be a consequence of increased...
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Patients Committing Suicide Whilst under the Care of the Elderly Suicide Prevention Programme of a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong
Introduction It is well known that people aged 65 years or above have a high rate of suicide (30 per 100,000) in 2005 which is about 2 to 3 times higher than that in the general population (11 per 100,000) in Hong Kong. (1) Different measures have...
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Referral Patterns and Clinical Characteristics of Subjects Referred to Substance Abuse Clinic of a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong
Introduction The Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH) is the main medical facility serving the Northeast area of the New Territories in Hong Kong. It has a catchment population of 1.2 million, which is about one-sixth that of the entire special administrative...
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Psychiatric Morbidity at a Female Residential Drug Treatment Centre in Hong Kong
Introduction In recent years a change in the pattern of drug abuse has been observed in Hong Kong. There has been a gradual increase in the preference for psychotropic drugs (ketamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, triazolam / midazolam / zopiclone,...
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Presenile Dementia: A Case of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy
Introduction Presenile dementia (onset of illness < 65 years) affects approximately 40 per 100,000 population. (1) The aetiology of presenile dementia is diverse, but more than 80% of cases are accounted for by the 5 commonest causes of Alzheimer's...
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White Matter Integrity Deficit in Treatment-Naive Adult Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Introduction It is well documented that the fronto-limbic system is composed of the frontal cortex, cingulate, and medial temporal cortex, which play critical roles in cognitive functions, (1-4) such as memory, decision-making, inference, executive...
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Vol. 20, No. 4, December

The Preparedness of Hong Kong Medical Students towards Advance Directives and End-of-Life Issues
Introduction In general, the concept of advance directives (AD) for health care refers to a statement, usually written, in which a mentally competent individual specifies the form of future health care desired in the event that competence is lacking....
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Lived Experience of Caregivers of Persons with Dementia in Hong Kong: A Qualitative Study
Introduction In line with global trends, the average age of the population in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly. By mid-2009, 12.8% of the local population were 65 years or over, (1) which was possibly the highest proportion in South-East Asia....
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Body Weight Perception and Methods of Weight Reduction Used by Patients with First-Episode Psychotic Disorders in Hong Kong
Introduction Obesity is highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia even in the early stage. One study found that more young individuals with psychotic disorders were obese (56%) compared with subjects in the general population (33%). (1)...
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A Three-Year Prospective Study of Spontaneous Eye-Blink Rate in First-Episode Schizophrenia: Relationship with Relapse and Neurocognitive Function
Introduction It is generally accepted that the central dopaminergic system is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. (1-3) Measures of dopamine system stability and sensitivity have been linked to proneness to psychotic episodes, (4-6)...
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Psychosocial Condition of Family Caregivers of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Hong Kong
Introduction Caregiving refers to the experiences and tasks about providing assistance to a family member who is no longer independent. (1) Burden of care indicates "the extent to which caregivers perceive their emotional or physical health, social...
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Psychosis Related to the Use of Sibutramine Disguised as Over-the-Counter Herbal Weight Loss Remedies: A Report of Two Patients
Introduction Obesity is a pressing health concern in both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity was as high as 33.9% in the USA in 2009. (1) Patients with schizophrenia are particularly at risk for obesity due to their sedentary...
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Darier's Disease and Schizophrenia
Introduction Darier's disease is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterised by warty papules and plaques in the seborrhoeic regions, palmoplanar pits, and distinctive nail dystrophy. Darier (1) and White (2) first described the disease...
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Vol. 20, No. 3, September

Depressive Disorders and Family Functioning among the Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia
Introduction Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which has a considerable impact on families (1) but many studies on the disorder have mainly focused on patients, with relatively less emphasis on the family. (2) Patients with schizophrenia...
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Development of a Psychological Well-Being Scale for Family Caregivers in Palliative Care
Introduction Psychological Well-being of Caregivers in Palliative Care Since the beginning of the modern hospice movement, the patient and family caregiver have been considered the unit of care because they have to face the physical and psychological...
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Neuropsychological Performance Predicts Decision-Making Abilities in Chinese Older Persons with Mild or Very Mild Dementia
Introduction Decision-making capacity for consent to treatment embodies 4 abilities: to communicate a choice; to understand the relevant information; to appreciate the medical consequences of the situation; and to reason about treatment choices....
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Internet Addiction: Consensus, Controversies, and the Way Ahead
Introduction The Internet is an integral part of modern life for many people. The idea that almost any subjectively rewarding activity (e.g. drug use, shopping, working, running, gambling, using the computer, and using the Internet), which can become...
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Hippocampus Structural Alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Brief Review (Translated Version)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition in which an individual presents with intrusion, lability of mood, emotional numbness and avoidance after exposure to severe traumatic events. Neuropsychological studies have shown that...
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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus as a Cause of First-Episode Psychosis in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy
Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that pregnancy does not protect women from mental illness. (1-3) Studies have shown that 1 in 10 women experienced depression during pregnancy. (2-3) Despite the fact that depression during pregnancy is...
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Vol. 20, No. 2, June

A Study of Contingent Negative Variation and Post-Imperative Negative Variation: Search for State and Trait Electrophysiological Markers in Schizophrenia
Introduction Among the novel tools for experimental analysis of cognitive function, averaged time-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) have been widely studied. The slow potentials (SPs) are event-related electromagnetic variations, which can...
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Extent of Weight Gain in Patients with First-Episode Psychotic Disorders after One Year of Antipsychotic Treatment in Hong Kong
Introduction Obesity has a high prevalence in patients with schizophrenia, regardless of age. Most studies on this topic involved patients with chronic schizophrenia and only a few deal with first-episode psychotic disorders. One study found that...
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Contribution of Working Memory Components to the Performance of the Tower of Hanoi in Schizophrenia
Introduction The Tower of Hanoi task and related tower-based tasks play an important role in the assessment of frontal lobe function. A number of studies have demonstrated that with respect to this test, performance is impaired among patients with...
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A Prospective Observational Study of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Asia: Baseline Characteristics of Symptom Severity and Treatment Options in a Paediatric Population
Introduction Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a relatively common psychiatric condition in children and adolescents that is estimated to occur in approximately 3 to 10% of school-aged children worldwide. (1) However, the prevalence...
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Childhood Adversity and Adult Depressive Disorder: A Case-Controlled Study in Malaysia
Introduction Self-reported childhood adversities are associated with mental disorders in adults, particularly depression. (1) A wide variety of childhood experiences confer biological, psychological, and social disadvantages that contribute to vulnerability...
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