Asian Culture and History

Articles

Vol. 6, No. 1, 2014

Culture and Rural Resettlement Projects in Laos
AbstractLaos is linguistically and ethnically the most diverse country in mainland Southeast Asia. To build a sustainable community/village with multi-ethnicity, it is necessary to take a pro-cultural consideration in the process of development intervention...
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Malaysia's Development Success Story: Critical Responses in Contemporary Malaysian Novels in English
AbstractMalaysia is often hailed as a development success story. However, one criticism of this success story is the over-emphasis on the ideology of economic and capitalist growth by the state in its setting, determining and directing of development....
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Pearl Trade in the Persian Gulf during the 19th Century
AbstractThis research provides an overview of pearl trade in the Persian Gulf during the 19^sup th^ Century, depending on the historical sequence methodology at the region of collapse of Arabian traditional maritime trade systems, in light of capitalist...
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Factors Influencing the Phenomenon of Rising Grain and Foodstuffs Prices in Egypt during the Circassian Mamluks Era (784AH / 1382AD - 923AH / 1517AD)
AbstractAlthough there are numerous studies about the Circassian Mamluk state, however there are no well rounded and integrated studies dealing with the phenomenon of the high grain and foodstuffs prices in Egypt during that era.The study problem aims...
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The Economic and Social Life in Egypt during the Reign of Ayyubid Sultan Saladin (567 AH -1171 AD) -589 AH/1193AD) a Vision through the Journey (Rihlat) of Ibn Jubayr
AbstractThis research aims to study the description, life and biography of the Ayyubid sultan Saladin by Ibn Jubayr, and the economic and social conditions of Egypt as witnessed and described by the traveler Ibn Jubayr and the following results are concluded:Fust:...
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An Analysis of the Ecological Features of Stilted Building in Yanzibian, Southern Shaanxi, China
AbstractSilted building is one of the most characteristic traditional residential building types. In the historical process of social transition, silted building has powerful ecological adaptability. Nowadays, there are only a limited number of silted...
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The Scientific, Cultural, Social and Economic Conditions of the Female Scholar of Jurisprudence in Mecca during the 15th Century
AbstractBased upon the preliminary historical and jurisprudent sources, this paper tries to shed light on the scientific and cultural movement in Mecca during the 9th century A.H./15th century woman's AD. It also tries to highlight basic notes on the...
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The Aesthetic University, the Market University, and the Battle for the Soul of Beida
AbstractBeida reformers invoke the legacy of Cai Yuanpei's cosmopolitan vision for making it a world-class university while erecting it on the principles of the "market university," which are contradictory to Cai's aesthetic ideals of universality, transcendence,...
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The Relationships between Saudi Arabia and the Idrisids Princes through Protectorate (Mecca) Agreement, 1926AD: An Analytical Study
AbstractIn this paper, an attempt is made for identifying the type of the relationship between Saudi Arabia and Idridsi princes in Asir Province through the 1926 Mecca Agreement. The historical roots of that relationship are sought to be shown. As shown...
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The Samar Counterinsurgency Campaign of 1899-1902: Lessons Worth Learning?
AbstractDuring the Philippine-American War of 1899-1902, the United States Army's most difficult, and renowned, counterinsurgency campaign was waged on the island of Samar. The Samareño insurgents had a well developed infrastructure and were merciless...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, 2013

Art and the Shift in Garden Culture in the Jiangnan Area in China (16Th - 17th Century)
AbstractThe remarkable growth in interest in aesthetic gardens in the late Ming period has been recognized in Chinese garden culture studies. The materialist historical approach contributes to revealing the importance of gardens' economic functions in...
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What (If Anything) Can Developing Countries Learn from South Korea?
AbstractThe economic development of South Korea since 1960 is one of the biggest success stories in the history of development. In just a few decades, South Korea transformed itself from an agricultural society to an industrialized nation exporting high-technology...
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The Poetic Transmission of Zen Buddhism
AbstractThis paper intends to understand the experience of enlightenment in Zen Buddhism from a perspective of poetics. Enlightenment is understood as an existential breakthrough, which delivers people from the habitual or conventional mind set into...
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The Images of Israel in Shanghai College Students' Eyes - A Questionnaire Perspective
AbstractThis research paper aims to explore the images of Israel in the eyes of college students in Shanghai, China. The author chooses students from East China Normal University, Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai University of Finance...
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An Exploration into the Elegant Tastes of Chinese Tea Culture
AbstractChina was the first to produce tea and consumed the largest quantities and its craftsmanship was the finest. During the development of Chinese history, Chinese Tea culture came into being. In ancient China, drinking tea is not only a very common...
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Poverty Reduction Policies in Malaysia: Trends, Strategies and Challenges
AbstractMalaysia is a multi-ethnic religious country with a population of 28.5 million, it is characterised by mainly three ethnic groups-Malay and indigenous people, Chinese, and Indians. Ever since independence in 1957, Malaysia has successfully transformed...
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Reviewing the Final Function of the Disciplinary Institution of Shurta (Police) during Shiite Buyids Government Dominance on Baghdad
AbstractDuring Abbasid Dynasty, Shurta Institution (Police) was one of the disciplinary and security systems whose duty was establishing order and security as well as fighting against the corrupt people and criminals i.e. Ayyaran. During the third period...
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Marx's Social Development Theory and Its Contemporary Enlightenment
AbstractMarx's social development theory is the major content of Marx's social and historical philosophy and is an important scientific achievement in his arduous exploration. Today, when social development encounters contradictions and difficulties,...
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A Study on the Effects of Ghazan Khan's Reformative Measures for the Settlement of the Nomadic Mongols (1295-1304)
Abstract This article aims to elaborate the effects of Ghazan Khan's reformative measures for changing Mongol lifestyle. They migrated from one place to another to make a living but after his reforms, they were settled. Mongols were among the people...
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Plagues, Epidemics and Their Social and Economic Impact on the Egyptian Society during the Mameluke Period (648 Hegira /1250 AD-923 Hegira /1517 AD)
AbstractThe study aims at shedding light on plagues and epidemics that hit Egypt during the Mameluke period through describing the plague disease and the plagues and epidemics that hit Egypt and the social and economic impact on the Egyptian society....
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The Religion of the Kara Koyunlu Dynasty: An Analysis
AbstractDifferent scholars have considered the Kara Koyunlu "Twelver Shiites", "Radical Shiites" and some others "Sunnites." A review of the "criteria for being recognized a Shiite" and comparing them with the Kara Koyunlu can confirm that they were...
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Subject Analysis in Iran's Local Historiography 1722-1925
AbstractSubjects can be assumed as phenomena possessing independent axes on which intellectual and material achievements are deployed into a network of interconnections that, centered on certain axes in specific place and time, may give rise to a series...
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Chinese Agricultural Development Policies and Characteristics since the Reform and Opening Up in China
AbstractUS scholars have ever proposed the doubt of "Who will feed China?" In the past 30 years or so since the reform and opening up in China, China has fed a population accounting for more than 20% of the total population in the world with an area...
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Eating, Starving and the Body: The Presentation of Self
AbstractThis study examines the subtle and complex importance of food and eating in contemporary female fiction. It reveals how the chief concern with food, its consumption and the body are central to the work of writer like Margaret Atwood. Two novels...
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The Role of Istanbul-Resident Iranians in the Development of Pan-Islamism Ideology (Case Study: Mirza Agha Khan Kermani & Sheikh Ahamad Rouhi)
AbstractIn the 2nd half of nineteenth century, when the Pan-Islamism ideology as the way out of Islamic world's straits was formed in the mind of some Islamic world's thinkers, some of Iranian thinkers joined the issue, as well. Mostly influenced by...
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Content Analysis and Understanding of the First Local History of Sheki Province in the 19th Century
AbstractSheki is one of the most important Moslem provinces of the Southern Caucasia. A series of local histories have emerged in this region the first of which is A Brief History of the Sheki Khans by Karim Agha Fateh. For years, this work had existed...
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Discussion on Internal Scientificity of Scientific Outlook on Development
AbstractThe party in power headed by Hu Jintao ever since the Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward "scientific outlook on development". It then becomes an important guideline for Chinese economic and social development...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, January

Zen's Four Mottos and the Poetic Language
AbstractThis paper attempts to delve into the heart of Zen Buddhism by discussing the four Zen mottos, which provide the philosophical and spiritual pillars of Zen. The four Zen mottos, "special transmission outside doctrine," "not to establish language,"...
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Historical Origin and Realistic Enlightenment of "Nanniwan Policy" - on the Realistic and Pragmatic Scientific Spirit of Zhu De
AbstractProposal and implementation of "Nanniwan Policy" fully reflects the scientific spirit of being practical and realistic, being innovative and realistic and pragmatic proposed by Zhu De, which has a realistic significance and enlightenment effect...
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"Dar-Al-Nodveh": The First Experience of Collective Wisdom in Managing Mecca City
AbstractThe history of Hejaz especially in one century before Islam was affected by Quraysh tribe. All political, social and economical changes were under the control of Quraysh leaders. Qsy Ibn Kalab was the most influential leader of this tribe during...
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Development of Pay Television Channels in China
This Project was financed by 2012 General Foundation of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of Guangzhou Philosophy and Social Science Research (Grant Number: 2012YB31; Grant Title: Effect of Time Spent Online and Patterns of internet use on Real-life Political...
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Archaelogical Analysis to Pictorial Shahnameh of Baysongor Mirza Tiymouri
AbstractAfter invention of writing, this new innovation jointed images, and writing together with painting became able to transfer human's information and ideas. During the Islamic period, simultaneously with the widespread use of paper in painting and...
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Assessment and Analysis of Ismaili Sect's Functionality Sect in Azerbaijan 4th - 10th Century A.H
AbstractThe Ismaili is one of the sub-sects of Shiite sect which in addition to being involved in some specific events in the history of different regions in the world of Islam from India to Iran and North Africa has been able to form governments. The...
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The Artistic Approach of Mandanipour on Farsi Language Applied in Shargh-E Banafshe Book
AbstractThe formalist linguists are of the opinion that the literary language is formed by polishing and foregrounding the practiced slang. Many of this literary tricks used in foregrounding are categorized; but there exist some literary tricks that...
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A Glimpse at the Culture of Qajar Era - Public Attraction to Gambling in Qajar Era
AbstractGames are among cultural manifestations of human communities which have continued to exist since the ancient times and developed during peaceful times; in the Qajar era, during the reign of Nasser-al-Din Shah, because relative peace and prosperity...
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Analyzing the Prophet Mohammad's Symbolic Horse in His Spiritual Ascension
AbstractBeginning from the ancient times human has always valued the historical individuals and events and by exaggerating their features and circumstances have created mythical and audacious characters and phenomena. In the history of Islam the same...
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The Influence of Naqshbandi Sheikhs on Educational Process of Timurid Era
AbstractIn the ninth century (A.H.) the number of Sufis and their sects increased due to Timurids' attention to Sufis, and as a consequence convents (Khaneqa) became one of the most important economical and political centers. Excessive wealth and spiritual...
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Understanding the Role of Imami Shiites in Historiography from the Fifth through the Seventh Centuries AH
AbstractDuring the fifth to the seventh centuries after Hegira, the Shiites did not have significant political power in the Islamic World and had a minority population. Yet despite these limitations, the Shiites leftbehind numerous works a large part...
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Vol. 4, No. 2, July

Pluralism, Vitality, and Transformability: A Case Study of Jining Religions in the Late Imperial and Republican Periods
AbstractThis article depicts the dynamic demonstrations of religions in late imperial and republican Jining. It argues with evidences that the open, tolerant and advanced urban circumstances and atmosphere nurtured the diversity and prosperity of formal...
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A Social Theoretical Interpretation of Dai Zhen's Critique of Neo-Confucianism
AbstractThis study analyzes and evaluates the social thought of Dai Zhen. It interprets Dai's thought in terms of a critique of ideology that problematizes Song dynasty Neo-Confucian moral vocabulary. Dai thinks that social critique is the ultimate goal...
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On the Characteristic of Temple Complexes in the near East in the 4th - 3rd Millennia BC
AbstractInvestigation of metal is important for understanding relationship between production and ideology in ancient Near East. Metal production in the Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age stimulated transformation of egalitarian society into stratified...
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The Political Economy of the Flow of Information
AbstractIn the global context, the economic-technological powers are also the political-cultural powers, which have the capacity to obtain the maximising benefits from the global flow of information. Meanwhile, the countries which are inferior in economics,...
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An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Product Evaluation from an Ethnic Subcultural Perspective
AbstractOne of the most significant cultural manifestations in buyer behavior may be the way in which a product is evaluated as a function of its various attributes. People from different cultures have different experiences and value structures which...
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The Influence and Exploration of Forceful Control in Enshi Area in China during the Resistance War against Japan
AbstractDuring the resistance war against Japan in China, the national administrative authority penetrated the rural society in Enshi city in Hubei province. For one thing, the village officials as the national administrative power strengthened their...
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George Town World Heritage Site: What We Have and What We Sell?
AbstractIn the new era of technology, internet turns to be one of the main sources of information, since it is considered cheaper and easier to use. Hence in tourism, two main pull factors influencing potential tourist to visit a destination are recognized...
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Bioarchaeological Analysis Mutual Relations of Populations Armenian Highlands and Eurasia Using Craniological and Dental Nonmetric Traits
AbstractUndertaken here is a multidimensional craniometric analysis of more than 254 ethnic groups of the Neolithic and Bronze Ages from the territory of Eurasia. On the basis of the received information, cluster analysis was done and has shown the genetic...
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The Scourge of Prostitution in Contemporary China: The "Bao Ernai" Phenomenon
AbstractChina in the post-Mao era was transformed by a veritable economic miracle and simultaneously underwent a series of radical époque-making changes in the Chinese ruling classes' political and ideological approach to government. The continued rapid...
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From Altar to Forests: Chinese Ancient Wine's Cultural Functions
AbstractWith a profound cultural crystalization, China was one of the first countries to brew wine in the world. As a Cultural carrier, wine ever performed the functions of religion, literature, art, and entertainment. To have a deep understanding of...
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Open-Air Conservation of Ruins and the Concept of "Non-Dislocation"
AbstractMost of the on-going debate is about "how" to protect archaeological ruins, whilst at the same time allowing the general public to enjoy them. Today it is clear how important it is, from the actual planning stages of excavations, to interact...
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Evolution of Clan Culture and Its Contemporary Significance
AbstractAs a component of Chinese traditional culture, clan culture still has both positive and negative influences upon Chinese society at present for several thousand years goes by. It is necessary for us to sort out the process of the evolution of...
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On Ups and Downs of Chinese Cultural Confidence
AbstractChinese nationality has experienced ups and downs in its cultural confidence with the nation's rise and fall. China has become the world's second largest economy and its cultural confidence should be enhanced so that China's softpower will be...
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Managing University Congregation Election in Nigeria for Better Result
AbstractThe study investigated the conduct of university's congregation election following the general complaints by university staffof poor organization and conduct. The population consisted of all principal officers and all graduates employed by the...
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Aesthetic Sense of the Vietnamese through Three Renovations of the Women's Ao Dai in the 20th Century
AbstractAo dai is a typical long dress of Viet Nam used to be worn by both men and women of the Viet and other ethnic peoples. In her shaping and development history, Viet Nam became a place that converged various cultural flows such as the Vietnamese...
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Assessment of Ancient Fridges: A Sustainable Method to Storage Ice in Hot-Arid Climates
AbstractThis article is an attempt to introducing ancient fridges as sustainable method to store ice in hot-arid Climates. Architectural heritages are considered as fundamental issue in the life of contemporaryworld.Hence, researches around this category...
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Iran and Its Boundaries in Challenging with Foreign Relation (1789 - 1836)
AbstractFrom ancient times, Iran's boundaries were formed by Iranian kings' struggles. From that time, an imagination about these boundaries was formed in Iranian minds and has been continued until now. So, one of the important duties of Iranian kings...
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Investigating the Role and Importance of Persian Crown Jewels in Economic and Political Developments in Shah Abbas I Era (1587-1629)
AbstractFrom their early history, Persians have always been charmed by jewelry and whenever a powerful dynasty came to power, economy of the country would become more dynamic and a collection of the most precious gems and jewels would be accumulated....
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Quality Learning Environments: Design-Studio Classroom
AbstractDesign education requires a specific setting that facilitates teaching/learning activities including lecturing, demonstrating, and practicing. The design-studio is the place of design teaching/learning activities and where students/students and...
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Supervision of Undergraduate Final Year's Project Requirement in Nigerian Universities - the Way out of the Wood
AbstractThe study investigated the supervision of undergraduates' degree projects in Nigerian universities following the general allegation that the present day projects do not contribute to any knowledge because students copy past work and project supervisors...
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The Mass Media Reportage of Crimes and Terrorists Activities: The Nigerian Experience
AbstractThe new mass media technologies now make information processing and distribution more accessible to people globally. Marshall Mcluhan's "global village" has given birth to a "global palour". However, perpetrators of crimes now bask on the philosophy...
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The Explanatory Comparison of Religious Policies in Central Governments of Safavid and Qajar Dynasties (1521.1925-AD)
AbstractThe attempt is made in this article to analyze and compare the religious policies of the two Safavid and Qajar dynasties' governments with respect to Sunnite sect. In these eras the related policies differed although the official religion of...
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Charcoal Dispersal from Alpine Stállo Hearths in Sub-Arctic Sweden: Patterns Observed from Soil Analysis and Experimental Burning
AbstractTo evaluate dispersal patterns and concentrations of macroscopic charcoal particles around Stállo settlements in sub-arctic Scandinavia, their distributions following experimental burning and soil concentrations around an alpine Stállo settlement...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, January

The Cultural Exchange between Sino-Western: Silk Trade in Han Dynasty
AbstractAs we all know, the Silk Road, as a famous ancient transportation route, was a trade line cross-Eurasian continent in history. Its name was from the delivery of silk. However, no Chinese ancient documents mentioned the name of "Silk Road". German...
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General Images of America in China since 1972 - Some Reviews on the Questionnaires
AbstractFor more than 200 years, America's images in Chinese popular as well as public discourse have experienced both positive and negative phases. This paper is exploring the general images of America in China, focusing on 6 critical periods when Sino-U.S....
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'Second Colonial Occupation': The United States and British Malaya 1945-1949
AbstractThis article examines the development of events after the World War II and how these events influenced the decolonisation process of British Southeast Asia. Britain returned to claim its colonial possessions in Southeast Asia after the defeat...
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Sufi Novels and Parables: A Significant Change in Doris Lessing's Writing
AbstractDoris Lessing, the Persian-born, African-raised and London-residing novelist enjoys a writing career which has spanned more than 50 years. Critics have labeled her as Marxist, feminist, Sufist and even psycho-analyst. It is my contention to prove...
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Study on Carving Art of DangShi Manor in Suide County, Shaanxi, China
AbstractThe DangShi manor is located in Hejiashi Village, Baijiajian Town approximately 20 kilometers from the southeast part of Suide County, Shaanxi Province, the unique architecture in Qing Dynasty that has been preserved almost intact in Suide County,...
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Discussion on Media Report on Group Events
AbstractGroup events that occurred in China show a trend of increasing in the number, rising in the scale and range extension. With environment and society changing, the media have reported the group events these years. However, facing to the challenge...
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Design Fundamentals in the Hot and Humid Climate of Iran: The Case of Khoramshahr
AbstractBuilding design based on principles of architecture in harmony with the climate of each region, in addition to creating thermal comfort in building interiors, reduces fuel consumption and more important it will demonstrate a clean and green environment....
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Refutation and Introspection of Modern Intellectuals on Western Discriminatory Utterances
AbstractEver since the modern times, with successive failure of the Qing Government in wars with foreign countries, discriminatory utterances of western countries towards the Chinese nation have been overflowing gradually. These discriminatory utterances...
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Indo-Omani Relations in the Reign of Sultan Taimur Bin Faisal Al Busaidi (1913-1931 AD)
AbstractThis paper relies on primary resources dealing with the history of Oman along with British documents, which are the most important materials that dealt with the situation in the region, in general, and in Oman in Particular, at a time when Britain...
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Communication: A Challenge to the Nigerian Church
AbstractThis paper took off recognizing the zeal of the African Church specifically the Nigerian Church. The relationship between communication and the community was discussed in this paper, good communication is very essential for the growth of every...
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Religious Involvement Effects on Mental Health in Chinese Americans
AbstractFaith has been shown to serve a protective role in the mental health of African Americans and European Americans. However, little research has examined whether any association exists in Asian Americans. Using the National Latino and Asian American...
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