African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies : AJCJS

Provides articles on criminology and criminal justice that focus on knowledge about and from Africa and Africans worldwide that could enrich the discipline in a progressive direction.

Articles

Vol. 5, No. 1/2, Fall

Editorial: Press Release: African Criminology and Justice Association Policy Proposal on Black Unemployment
This resolution was tabled at the annual meeting of the African Criminology and Justice Association in November, 2011, Washington D.C. Following a debate, the meeting voted to approve the resolution. A text of the resolution was later circulated by email...
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Effective Investigations, A Pivot to Efficient Criminal Justice Administration: Challenges in Nigeria
AbstractThis paper identifies the connection between effective criminal investigations and the efficiency of criminal justice administration in Nigeria. It further examines the challenges of criminal investigations and concludes with suggestions for...
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Re-Visiting the May 2008 Xenophobic Attacks in South Africa
AbstractXenophobia is a latent or obtrusive dislike of foreigners. It is anti-social and destructive of property and life. Xenophobic attacks in South Africa, which started around mid May in 2008 in the informal settlements of Alexandria claimed 62 lives....
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Who and Where to Punish in a Criminally Loaded Conflict of Norhtern Uganda: A Dilemmatic Juxtaposition of Forms of Justice in the Northern Uganda Conflict
AbstractMuch has been said about the conflict in northern Uganda, a civil conflict that has caused untold suffering in Uganda and the general Great Lakes region of Africa. However, little is made concrete and precisely analysed about how applicable or...
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United States Aid to Kenya: A Study on Regional Security and Counterterrorism Assistance before and after 9/11
AbstractFollowing 9/11 and the beginning of the global War on Terror, it became obvious that the United States needed an ally in East Africa. Kenya, a country that has remained relatively stable while surrounded by regional insecurities, was chosen by...
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Criminal Liability of the Police in Cameroon: Prospects and Challenges
AbstractThis paper looks at the institutional framework and the procedural mechanisms involved in rendering police accountable through the criminal trial process in Cameroon. The difficulties involved in getting a police agent answer for his criminal...
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How States Facilitate Small Arms Trafficking in Africa: A Theoretical and Juristic Interpretation
AbstractSmall arms' trafficking is complex and involves a host of actors. As numerous court documents, transcripts, United Nations and NGO reports have revealed, many state institutions play a prominent role in the facilitation of, complicity in, and...
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Analyzing the Evolution of Private Security Guards and Their Limitations to Security Management in Nigeria
AbstractThe origin of the proliferation of private security companies (guards) in Nigeria can be traced to the systemic failure and inefficiency that adorn the public security sector, which exhibits blatant inability to meet the security needs of the...
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Role of Tobacco Promotions on Smoking1
AbstractThe major goal of the study was to examine the impact of tobacco promotions on smoking among African American college students. The study was conducted among undergraduate students (N=257) and incoming freshmen (N=287) in a Historically Black...
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Crisis of Governance and Urban Violence in Nigeria
ABSTRACTThis paper examines the crisis of governance and urban violence in Nigeria, using a documentary technique with an analysis of several theories including the Frustration and Aggression Theory, the Social Disorganization Theory, the Social Control...
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Vol. 4, No. 2, April

Approaches to Crime Control and Order Maintenance in Transitional Societies: The Role of Village Headmen, Chiefs, Sub-Chiefs and Administration Police in Rural Kenya
AbstractThe need to illuminate and contextualize approaches to crime control and order maintenance in transitional societies has become increasingly necessary, thanks to the pervasiveness of social disorder and the elusive nature of crime in general....
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Editorial: RESOLUTION AGAINST THE WAR ON AFRICAN AMERICANS
The meeting of the African Criminology and Justice Studies Association which owns this African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies adopted this draft resolution in November, 2010, San Francisco. A similar draft resolution was submitted to the...
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The Problems of Administration of Justice on Female Offenders in Nigeria
ABSTRACTThe Nigerian Criminal Justice system arose as a part of the State to protect and promote the interests of the citizens of the country. By administering justice the legal order of the State is ensured. But in the administration of the law, certain...
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Future Challenges of International Victimology
AbstractFuture Challenges of International Victimology introduces readers to the study of international victimology because victimology has become an international discipline. The chapters include an overview about international protocols with special...
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Transition
Dr. Yaw Ackah, professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Delaware State University, passed away on February 17, 2010 after being in a comma for several weeks. He had been a faculty of Delaware State since 1992. The late 64-year old Dr. Ackah was...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, June

Modeling the Differential Incidence of "Child Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation"1 in Poor Households in South Africa: Focus on Child Trafficking
AbstractThis paper is based on an in-progress Ph.D. research2 themed: "Modeling the Differential Incidence of Child Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation in Poor Households in South Africa". The aim of the research is to build a theoretical grounding and to...
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Editorial: What Is Criminology? A Control-Freak Discipline!
Introduction:Any scholar who makes a lasting contribution to the African crisis would be recognized in the history of intellectual accomplishments as having made a unique contribution to the world. This is part of the reason why I am passionate about...
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Racial Disparities in Sentencing: Implications for the Criminal Justice System and the African American Community
ABSTRACTThis paper analyzes the consequences of discriminatory sentencing on the African American community. The intent is to review factors that contribute to the overrepresentation of African Americans in the prison system and to analyze the way that...
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The Progress of Democratic Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa
AbstractSince the end of apartheid in South Africa the country has been forced to democratize. A major part of that democratization is the new police organization that was implemented post-apartheid. This article looks at the policy changes in the police...
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Community Policing: International Patterns and Comparative Perspectives
Community Policing: International Patterns and Comparative Perspectives. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis: Boca Raton, Florida By Dominique, Wisler and Ihekwoaba D. Onwudiwe (eds.), 2009In recent years, community policing as an agenda for policing reform...
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Nigeria's Human Rights Violation Investigation Commission (Hrvic) and Restorative Justice: The Promises, Tensions and Inspirations for Transitional Societies
AbstractThe lack of peace in most post-colonial African nation-states is tied to unresolved political asymmetry among peoples with contending narratives of origins and power relations. The Justice system bequeathed to these states at their 'flag' independence...
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"'Not in Canada': The Non-Ebola Panic and Media Misrepresentation of the Black Community"
AbstractThis paper investigates the case of a non-Ebola panic in Hamilton, Ontario in 2001. Using in-depth interviews of journalists, hospital staff, members of the Congolese-Black community and content analysis of coverage by four Canadian newspapers,...
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Vol. 3, No. 2, July

Language and Graffiti of Exceptional Individuals: Pedagogical Strategies in West Africa
ABSTRACTThis paper establishes the place of language and graffiti practiced by exceptional individuals in the interpretation of family values, the preservation of culture and traditional heritage of the Igbo community in Southeastern Nigeria. The paper...
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Hiv/aids, Crime and Security in Southern Africa
AbstractHIV/AIDS, crime, security and governance are linked issues in the region of Southern Africa. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organisation (WHO), sub-Saharan Africa is home to approximately...
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Theories in Dispute
Theories in Dispute Arnason, Johann P. (2003). Civilizations in Dispute: Historical Questions and Theoretical Traditions. Leiden: Brill.Johann Arnason's book is not for the feint hearted. A wideranging background in history, historical sociology, cultural...
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Editorial: Foreign Women in Prison
ABSTRACT:The imprisonment of women worldwide has always been a controversial issue. This is partly because women do not end up in prison as frequently as men and so discussions of prison populations most often focus on the experiences of male prisoners....
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The International Criminal Court: Creation, Competence, and Impact in Africa
ABSTRACTThis article discusses the fact that the creation of the International Criminal Court (the ICC) is the fulfillment of a goal in international jurisprudence that will improve good governance in states and prevent international crimes. The author...
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Vol. 3, No. 1, July

Doing Justice without the State: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model
DOING JUSTICE WITHOUT THE STATE: THE AFIKPO (EHUGBO) NIGERIA MODEL By O. Oko Elechi. New York: Routledge, 2006.The book Doing Justice without the State: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model, vividly explains an essentially home-grown methodology of justice...
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The Place of Criminology in the Study of Terrorism: Implications for Homeland Security
Abstract:In this article, I intend to describe the history of terrorism, provide an explanation of some aspects of criminological theories related to the study of terrorism, and briefly articulate the link between criminology, terrorism, and homeland...
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Immigrants' Experiences in America: Toward Understanding Organized Crime
AbstractUsing the emergence of Sicilian Mafia in the United States of America as the focal condition, this article investigates why the emergence of organized crime in the United State of America is widely misunderstood. The author aims to provide a...
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Criminology, African Fractals, and Elections
The recent elections in Africa with a few exceptions confound political analysts and lay people alike in terms of why they are so chaotic compared to some elections in other parts of the world that appear more orderly. I believe that the explanation...
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Factors Vitiating against the Effectiveness of the Nigeria Police in Combating the Criminal Exploitation of Children and Women
AbstractIt is estimated that each year close to one million persons are trafficked across international borders. Nigeria has been identified as a major source, destination, and transit for the trafficking of persons, particularly women and children....
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Doing Justice without the State: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model
DOING JUSTICE WITHOUT THE STATE: THE AFIKPO (EHUGBO) NIGERIA MODEL By O. Oko Elechi. New York: Routledge, 2006.This very ground-breaking and credible research on restorative justice results in a powerful elucidation of Afikpo's traditional system of...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, November

The Need for Establishing a Nigerian Society of Criminology
A paper presented at the meeting of Nigerian criminologists and interested persons in related professions in criminology, held in the Garden City of Port Harcourt, at Sissi Hotel, Plot 46, Oromenike Street, D/line, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria,...
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The Importance of Qualitative Research in Understanding the Disproportionate Black Presence in Crime Figures in the United Kingdom (UK)
ABSTRACT:This paper is a critique of the usefulness of quantitative research in illuminating our understanding of the over-representation of black people in crime figures including prison statistics. With reference to the United Kingdom, the paper offers...
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Law and Justice in Post-British Nigeria: Conflicts and Interactions between Native and Foreign Systems of Social Control in Igbo
Law and Justice in Post-British Nigeria: Conflicts and Interactions Between Native and Foreign Systems of Social Control in Igbo. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Hard Copy, 2002, 236 pages. By Nonso OkereafoezekeUndeniably, African criminologists are redirecting...
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Justice in History: An Examination of 'African Restorative Traditions' and the Emerging 'Restorative Justice' Paradigm
**Searchable keywords: restorative justice; community/criminal justice; African justice; Alternative Dispute/Conflict Resolution; Comparative/Cultural criminology.AbstractThe internationalisation of restorative justice is a welcomed development. But...
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"An Examination of Death Penalty Views of Nigerian and U.S. College Students: An Exploratory Study."
ABSTRACTThe focus of this study is the examination of the views of Nigerian and U.S. college students regarding the death penalty and related issues. This exploratory undertaking seeks to answer three main questions. First, are there differences in the...
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EDITORIAL: THEIR AMERICANS: WHY DO WE LOVE 'EM SO?i
America! We Love You! But why? Africans came before Columbus to fraternize with Native Americans (Sertima, 1976). But since 1492 we have been terrorized along with the natives. Transportation, Auction, Plantation, Revolution, Emancipation, Liberation,...
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Crime, Punishment, and Justice among Muslim Inmates (the Meaning of Crime and Punishment to Muslim Inmates and Its Policy Implications)
ABSTRACTThis study explores how incarcerated Muslim men understand crime and punishment from their religion's perspective. It analyzes responses to open-ended questions posed in a mail survey delivered to Muslim inmates from Ohio State prisons. The inmates'...
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Vol. 2, No. 1, June

Transition from Legal Alien to Permanent Resident
The debate around illegal immigration in America could benefit from a comparative analysis with Europe and I believe that Europe has a lot to learn from America. I do not know any (European) country in which hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants...
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Violence against Women in Africa
AbstractThe United Nations' report on the State of the World Population 2000 (United Nations, 2000b) and studies conducted by the World Health Organization (2000a) and Amnesty International (2004) all indicate that violence against women is rampant in...
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Relevance of African Traditional Jurisprudence on Control, Justice, and Law: A Critique of the Igbo Experience
AbstractNative African ideas and models of law and justice are best suited for social control in African societies. Africans should therefore prefer the ideas and models for many reasons, including the fact that Native African systems of law and justice...
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Racial, Cultural and Sociopolitical Disparities in Mental Health Administration in the United States*
AbstractDespite significant advances in the health care industry, recent research has revealed alarming disparities in the availability, access, and quality of health care for minorities. According to the 2001 Surgeon General's report published by the...
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Biko Agozino and the Rise of Post-Colonial Criminology
"Indeed, there is something hauntingly unreal about a scholarly discipline dedicated to the study of crime, the criminal and the criminal law that focuses almost exclusively upon the actions of lawbreaking individuals, while turning a blind eye to the...
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Law and Justice in Post-British Nigeria: Conflicts and Interactions between Native and Foreign Systems of Social Control in Igbo
LAW AND JUSTICE IN POST-BRITISH NIGERIA: CONFLICTS AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NATIVE AND FOREIGN SYSTEMS OF SOCIAL CONTROL IN IGBO. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2002. 236 pp.: by Nonso Okereafoezeke:This book fills a critical void in the literature...
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Vol. 1, No. 2, November

Editorial: Re-Mapping Africa
The National Geographic reported on November 20, 2002, that 11% of a sample of Americans aged 18-24 (that is, high school graduates, undergraduates, graduates, or working adults) could not find their own country on a map of the world. Is that embarrassment...
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Walter Rodney and Black Power: Jamaican Intelligence and Us Diplomacy*
On October 15, 1968 the government of Jamaica barred Walter Rodney from returning to the island. A lecturer at the Jamaica (Mona) campus of the University of the West Indies (UWI), Rodney had been out of the country attending a black power conference...
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A REFUTATION OF RACIAL DIFFERENTIALS IN THE JUVENILE RECIDIVISM RATE HYPOTHESIS[dagger]
Abstract:It has repeatedly been argued that race is an important predictor of juvenile recidivism, invariably with black offenders having significantly higher odds of recidivating than white offenders (DeComo, 1998; Strom, 2000; Benda, 2001; Langan &...
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Crime, Criminology and Post-Colonial Theory: Criminological Reflections on West Africa
Crime, Criminology and Post-Colonial Theory: Criminological Reflections on West Africa, by Biko Agozino Review Essays on two chapters relevant to Africa in Transnational & Comparative Criminology, edited by James Sheptycki & Ali Wardak, 2005,...
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"Some Critical Reflections on the Governance of Crime in Post-Apartheid South Africa"
"Some Critical Reflections on the Governance of Crime in Post-Apartheid South Africa", by Anne-Marie Singh In Transnational & Comparative Criminology, edited by James Sheptycki & Ali Wardak, 2005, Glasshouse Press, 375 pagesSocial control, particularly...
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Ethnicity and Crime: Criminal Behavior Redefined*
AbstractStudies dealing with the definition of crime have primarily been concerned with developing hypotheses and theories of universal crime commission and definition. These theories of human behavior may appear plausible on paper but do not work well...
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Exploring Police Relations with the Immigrant Minority in the Context of Racism and Discrimination: A View from Turku, Finland
AbstractCitizens and immigrant minorities come into contact with the police in various circumstances, either as witnesses, victims of crime, or even as suspects. The present study is an attempt to examine issues concerning racism and discrimination in...
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Field Notes: Hidden Laws in Uganda
I learned a lot about Uganda the night I was arrested in Kampala and taken to the Central Police Station. During my short stay in CPS, I discovered that the police keep some laws secret from Ugandan citizens and even from themselves. It was early in...
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Value Orientation of Minor Law-Breakers in the Republic of Mali
The system of values determines the meaningful side of the directivity of personality and composes the basis of its relations to the surrounding peace, to other people and to itself. It plays a great role in the formation of worldview, the nucleus, which...
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Vol. 1, No. 1, April

Editorial
This journal is the official organ of the African Criminology and Justice Association but the opinions expressed in the journal are those of the authors and not necessarily representative of the views of the association. The journal is here to fill a...
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Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason
Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason by Biko Agozino. London: Pluto Press, 2003.The development and maintenance of criminology-expressed as a "repressive technology," and along with other constraining and dominant technologies,...
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The State of Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) in Mississippi's Juvenile Detention Facilities1
AbstractDisproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) has become a national issue due to several amendments to the JJDP Act of 1974 requiring compliance of all states' participating in the formula grants program. All participating states, including the...
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Obstacles to Effective Policing in Nigeria
AbstractThis paper traces the history of colonial social control and Policing in Nigeria, and also reviews the literature and examines how colonialism demonized, discredited, and supplanted the traditional system of policing. It establishes that in place...
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Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason
Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason by Biko Agozino. London: Pluto Press, 2003.The counterpoint of Counter-Colonial Criminology is the unmasking of Eurocentric criminology for what it is. In exchange, Agozino proffered sound...
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Presidential Message
I have today chosen to write this statement of support for the maiden edition of the African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies (AJCJS). I am writing, not just as the President of the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES), but also as an...
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Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason
Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason by Biko Agozino. London: Pluto Press, 2003.Since its inception, the goal of criminology has been to answer the age old question: "What causes crime?" With Counter-Colonial Criminology, Biko...
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Pre-Colonial Criminal Justice in West Africa: Eurocentric Thought versus Africentric Evidence
AbstractThrough the process of Eurocentric pro-colonialist propaganda people have been, and continue to be, led to assume that the European colonialists brought criminal justice and law and order to Africa. This article challenges those assumptions by...
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Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason
...I bet your nanny never told youcriminologists have poo-poo theory in short,they talk about punishment of offenders,how about the punishment of the innocent?Punishment of Offenders - BPOO!Punishment of the Innocent - BPOTI!... (Pg. 114)In Counter-Colonial...
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Criminology as Lovemaking: An Africa Centered Theory of Justice
ABSTRACTThis paper explores the potential role of love in criminal justice and jurisprudence by excavating ancient and modern philosophies of justice to reveal the puzzling evasion of love in attempts by various philosophical traditions to engineer a...
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Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason
Counter-Colonial Criminology: A Critique of Imperialist Reason by Biko Agozino. London: Pluto Press, 2003.Counter-Colonial Criminology - A Critique of Imperialist Reason challenges Criminologists and readers alike to re-examine traditional criminology...
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