Forced Migration Review

Provides articles on refugee and internal displacement issues.

Articles from No. 42, April

A Model Immigration Detention Facility for LGBTI?
The US has taken some positive steps to improve the treatment of gay and transgender asylum seekers in immigration detention but could make improvements in four key areas.In 2011, the first official multi-plaintiff complaint was lodged with the US Department...
Assessing Transgender Asylum Claims
It can be challenging for all asylum seekers to demonstrate that they are at risk of persecution but perhaps even more so for transgender applicants.There are two main categories of gender identity: 'normative', where one's biological sex and felt gender...
Asylum for Persecuted Homosexuals in the Republic of Korea
Two recent successful claims for asylum suggest that the Republic of Korea may be prepared to serve in the future as an important country of asylum for those suffering persecution due to their sexual orientation.While Korean society has certainly become...
Barriers to Justice in the UK
In recent years, there have been significant legal advances in the treatment of the cases of lesbian and gay asylum seekers in the UK. However, various barriers still remain.Interviews with case workers, solicitors specialising in LGBT asylum cases and...
Challenges to Producing LGB-Specific Country of Origin Information
Evaluations of whether lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) asylum claimants have a well-founded fear of persecution frequently require Country of Origin Information (COI) on the state of LGB people in the country of origin. However, information on LGB populations...
City Planning for Sexual Diversity: New Policies in Bogotá
Bogotá is the primary destination of those internally displaced by violence in Colombia. The places of origin of the population displaced by violence are also the areas with the highest levels of violations of the rights of LGBT people, mainly transgender...
Ensuring Protection for LGBTI Persons of Concern
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) asylum seekers and refugees face a myriad of threats, risks and vulnerabilities throughout all stages of the displacement cycle. There needs to be greater awareness not only of the specific protection...
From the Editors
Around the world, people face abuse, arbitrary arrest, extortion, violence, severe discrimination and lack of official protection because of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. This is true even in countries where the legal environment for...
Gender Identity and Disaster Response in Nepal
Agencies need to be mindful of the special needs of LGBTI victims of disasters in order to enhance protection and minimise unintended harmful consequences of relief efforts.Although there is a need for more research in this area, there is evidence to...
Global Human Rights Frameworks Applicable to LGBTI Migrants
Sexual minorities leave home for a variety of reasons but their departure is often due to the identitybased violence, discrimination and harassment they face at the hands of state actors, family and community. Although no international legal instrument...
Grantmaking for SOGI Programmes
With issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity a relatively new field for funders, the opportunity exists for funders to exert strategic influence on the development of improved policy and practice.The availability and limitations of...
Identity and Integration in Israel and Kenya
Expression of non-conforming sexual orientation and gender identity depends on social, legal, cultural and political opportunities which provide space for exploration and the emergence of new identities. People's protection will also depend on these.Sexual...
Kosovo: What Does the Future Hold for LGBT People?
Rising numbers of people from Kosovo are seeking asylum in other European countries on grounds of persecution for their sexual orientation. States considering such claims need to look beyond Kosovo's apparently progressive constitution to the rather...
LGBT Aid Workers: Deployment Dilemmas
LGBT aid workers and their managers confront a number of dilemmas in deciding whether LGBT staff will be safe - and accepted - working in certain countries.The deployment manager's perspective It was 5pm on a Friday night and I was dropping off my new...
LGBT: Equally Entitled to Human Rights and Dignity
Attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and issues are rapidly improving in the United States. Barriers to equal treatment and opportunity are coming down. Recognition that LGBT rights are universal rights is gaining ground....
LGBTI Asylum Claims: The Central and Eastern European Perspective
Recent research indicates that CEE countries still lag far behind the rest of Europe in their asylum practices in relation to LGBTI asylum claims. Low levels of awareness, lack of guidance and cultural hostility are jeopardising asylum seekers' prospects...
LGBTI Migrants in Immigration Detention
As states increasingly use detention as a means of controlling migration flows, sexual minority migrants find themselves in detention facilities where they may face multiple violations of their human rights.Increasingly, states detain irregular migrants...
LGBTI Refugees: The Brazilian Case
Brazil has a long tradition of providing shelter and protection to people persecuted for political, racial and social reasons. Followingthe directives of UNHCR concerningthe definition of a 'social group' as a cohesive and vulnerable group whose members...
LG BT Refugee Protection in the UK: From Discretion to Belief?
The UK government used to have no specific guidance or training for decision-makers for claims brought on the grounds of sexual orientation. It was only in 2010 following a combination of judicial, civil society and political pressures that specific...
LGBT Refugee Resettlement in the US: Emerging Best Practices
US refugee resettlement agencies are directing more attention and effort toward assisting LGBT refugees and asylum seekers, and best practices are beginning to emerge.For more than two decades, the US has recognised persecution due to sexual orientation...
Mental Health Challenges of LGBT Forced Migrants
Many LGBT forced migrants have significant and sometimes incapacitating psychological scars. Mental health providers can assist in documenting the psychological impact of antiLGBT persecution and its impact on the ability to secure refugee status.Lesbian,...
"On What Grounds?" LGBT Asylum Claims in Canada
A number of positive developments have occurred over the past two decades to create more robust protection and community support within Canada - but recent legislative changes will jeopardise fairness and justice for LGBT refugee claimants."It was the...
Protection in the City: Some Good Practice in Nairobi
Despite a challenging protection environment, an assistance programme for LGBTI refugees in Nairobi offers examples of good practice that could be replicated in other urban settings.More than 50,000 registered refugees live in Nairobi.1 Assistance agencies...
Seeking Asylum in the UK: Lesbian Perspectives
Many aspects of the UK asylum process can be confusing, disempowering and traumatic for lesbian asylum seekers. Recent research examines the impacts of this process on their experiences, their identity and their well-being.Individuals making asylum claims...
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Developments in EU Law
The amended version of the EU Qualification Directive, adopted in 2011, marks further progress in ensuring LGBTI applicants' rights by explicitly adding gender identity alongside sexual orientation as a cause of persecution.The EU is in the process of...
The Rainbow Group in Mae la Camp
Discrimination, verbal abuse and physical and sexual violence follow Burmese LGBTI people who cross into Thailand to seek shelter in camps.Growing up gay in Burma I did not really understand what being 'gay7 meant but I believed that my feelings must...
Towards Inclusive Resettlement for LGBTI Refugees
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) refugees face myriad challenges within the resettlement context. Practical initiatives - such as creating a welcoming space, ensuring confidentiality, training staff, providing critical resources...