TCA Journal

Articles

Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring

Living without Free Will: Cambridge Studies in Philosophy
Pereboom, Derek (2001)Living without free will: Cambridge studies in philosophyCambridge, MASS: Cambridge University PressReviewed by Duffy WilksIn a Peanuts cartoon strip, Charles Schulz' delightfully self-centered Lucy was once shown carrying a document...
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Developing a Comprehensive Elementary School Counseling Program on a Shoestring
This article features a series of strategies and resources one elementary school counselor used to develop a comprehensive elementary school counseling program without adequate funding. Suggestions include participation in professional associations,...
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Contributions of Supervisees: A Strength-Based Element of Supervision
Professional literature on supervision of the practicum and internship has a variety of foci. This article explores an element of supervision that honors the contributions made by the supervisee to the site as a way to foster an increased sense of efficacy...
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Understanding the Grief Process: A First Step to Helping Bereaved Clients
Grief is a normal and natural response to any significant loss, especially the death of a loved one or close friend. The grieving process is, however, often misunderstood and/or neglected by both the bereaved and professional helpers. Counselors and...
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Effects of a Brief Meditation Program on Well-Being and Loneliness
This study tested the hypothesis that brief meditations practiced daily over a short period of time would increase individuals' well being and decrease their susceptibility to loneliness. Twenty graduate students in a transpersonal psychology course...
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Vol. 30, No. 2, Fall

Expressive Arts in Family Therapy: Including Young Children in the Process Stephen A. Armstrong and Chris S. Simpson
Family therapists often provide treatment for the entire family. Talk therapy can be effective with older children, but young children do not have the capacity to respond to an abstract approach. Family play therapy is an approach that recognizes the...
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Combining Counseling and Family Law: What Every Counselor Should Know about Collaborative Law Procedure
Collaborative Law Procedure offers a new legal method for resolving divorce and family law cases. While some attorneys may already attempt to work amicably in the practice of family law, the Texas legislature recently created a Collaborative Law Procedure...
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Preparing Counselors to Dialogue about Race
PREPARING COUNSELORS A 750 word excerpt from this manuscript appeared in the March 2002 edition of the TCA Guidelines newsletter, on behalf of the Texas Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. This article focuses on an interview conducted...
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Seventy Years of Co-Leadership: Where Do We Go from Here?
For over seventy years, mental health professionals have employed a modality of therapy that uses more than one counselor with an individual or a group of clients. Although widely discussed in the professional literature and extensively practiced among...
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The Intensive, Three Week Interim Semester: Is It Effective?
INTERIM SEMESTER Universities have implemented an intensive 3-week interim semester, or "mini-mester." How does the compressed and intensive mini-mester compare to more traditional academic formats? The research reported here is a comparison of the same...
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Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring

The Relationship of Gang Membership to Self-Esteem, Family Relations, and Learning Disabilities
In order to learn more about the social and personal disabilities of individuals with differing levels of gang membership, 205 Hispanic high school students in Southeastern Texas received the Pillen and Hoewing-Roberson (1992) Gang Membership Inventory...
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Counseling Leaders' Strategies for Stimulating Professional Development and Avoiding Burnout
This article features the results of a qualitative inquiry designed to identify strategies that leaders in the counseling profession employ to promote their own professional growth and avert burnout. Findings appear to be somewhat inconsistent with traditional...
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TCA Professional Growth Conferences: History and Future Direction
The authors present an historical overview of what is now known as the Texas Counseling Association Professional Growth Conference, tender observations regarding its future development, and offer suggestions to increase the vigor of the institution....
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A Comparison of Texas Counselor Credentialing Regulations
The authors compared selected aspects of the American Counseling Association's (ACA) model legislation and corresponding legislation and regulations that govern the practice of professional counseling in Texas, highlighting important differences. Recommendations...
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A Survey of School Counselor's Multicultural Counseling Competencies
This study was funded by the Faculty Research Enhancement Fund at Sam Houston State University The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between demographic and educational variables and school counselors' multicultural counseling competencies...
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The Application of Resiliency Process by School Counselors in Texas
Researchers have found that resilient youth have certain internal and external factors that help them overcome life's adversities. School counselors are often in advantageous positions to positively affect large numbers of youth by helping them develop...
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Meeting the Needs of Adolescents with a Family Member Recently Deployed for Military Duty
Following the events of September 11, 2001, many students have exhibited increased levels of stress. The impact has been especially great for adolescents with a close relative in military service. Adolescents are more aware than younger students of how...
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The Teaching of Leadership, Cooperation, and Communication in a Class Entitled: Management of Counseling Programs
This article describes the use of collaborative project-based learning as a format for teaching a course in management of counseling programs. Student reactions concerning opportunities to develop leadership, cooperation, and communication skills are...
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The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Texas School Counselors
Implementing guidance programs that meet the recommended state and national standards for quality counseling programs is a struggle for many Texas school counselors. Overburdened and frustrated with a lack of support, many counselors feel overwhelmed...
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Vol. 29, No. 2, Fall

A School/university Partnership: Insights on Effective Collaboration
This article presents reflections on an experimental project in which a South Texas school district and university partnered to open a child development center on the university campus. While exploring individual human behavior and underlying group principles,...
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Counseling Female Offenders Who Abuse Substances
The United States has experienced an increase in the number of individuals incarcerated in criminal justice facilities, particularly female offenders. Many of the female offenders are arrested for charges involving substance abuse or have substance abuse...
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The Court-Mandated Client: Does Limiting Confidentiality Preclude a Therapeutic Encounter?
Counseling is defined as a contract between the counselor and the client to effect change in the client. Research indicates that the relationship between the client and the therapist is integral to this process. Recognition of the efficacy of counseling...
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A Research Assessment Survey of TCA Members: Thoughts on Promoting Counselor Interest in Original Research
The promotion of counselor interest in research can be a formidable task. As co-chairs of the Research, Assessment, and Evaluation Committee of the Texas Counseling Association (TCA), we developed and distributed a printed survey designed to assess the...
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Crisis Intervention and Trauma Response, Theory and Practice
Wainrib, B. R. & Bloch, E. L. (1998) Crisis Intervention and Trauma Response, Theory and Practice New York, NY: Springer Publishing, 209 pages. This book, the collaborative work of two women, is written with sensitivity and compassion, reflecting...
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Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring

Learning the Ropes: Challenges for Change
Challenge courses (often called Ropes courses) offer benefits to children and adolescents in an outdoor group setting. A description and historical background is given as well as typical settings in which this adventure-based counseling is currently...
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Post-Termination Non-Sexual Dual Relationships: Dynamics and Assessment
According to the available research literature, mental health professionals have a difference of opinion regarding the ethical nature of post-termination non-sexual dual relationships. Despite evidence that these relationships are harmful to the client,...
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Intuition: The Other Way of Knowing
The counseling literature has devoted little attention to discussion of the function of intuition in the process of therapeutic work. In this article, we explore intuition and encourage greater awareness of its place and role in counseling. We also provide...
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Factors Associated with the Inclusion of Managed Care Concepts in the Curricula of Master's Level Counselor Preparation Programs
A survey of 60 counselor preparation programs was conducted to determine to what degree the behavioral methodologies endorsed by managed care are included in the curricula. The majority of respondents indicated that community counseling programs provide...
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Dismantling Eclectism: Choosing, Understanding, and Implementing a Legitimate Theory of Counseling
The demands of work environments to promote change with clients, coupled with the seemingly overwhelming nature of counseling theory, have resulted in idiosyncratic implementation of techniques borrowed from divergent theories of counseling (i.e., eclecticism)....
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Approaches to Play Therapy: A Tabular Overview
Students and trainees often have questions regarding the contemporary approaches to play therapy, and many of these questions revolve around the similarities and differences between the various play therapy models. This article provides readers with...
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A Resource for Addiction Counseling: Licensed Chemical Dependency Counselors in Texas
Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) and school counselors increasingly find themselves asked to work cooperatively with Licensed Chemical Dependency Counselors (LCDCs) in a variety of work settings. This article addresses the scope of practice of...
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Someone Should Have Known
Someone should have known! Disappearing childhood flying away in the afternoon and early evenings. The signs were all there: the long dresses, the matted hair, weight gain, isolation, sadness. The silent cries unheard. The battered spirit, black eyes,...
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Recipe for Good Life Cookies
Ingredients: * a giant-sized box of humor * a full gallon of encouragement * a container of skills, in the flavors of doing and thinking * vast amount of learning experiences * a generous dollop of religion * bushels and bushels of love * a bag of wacky...
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Vol. 28, No. 2, Fall

Editorial Perspective
A theory is a melody of thoughts, Philosophy, the unchained melody of reason. Within the context of the counseling profession's continuing efforts to readdress theoretical issues and systemize to the maximum extent possible inferences drawn from the...
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Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Counseling: A Historical Review of Counseling Theory Development in Relation to Definitions of Freewill and Determinism
This review traces the development of counseling theory in relation to the philosophical constructs of freewill and determinism. Problems associated with the construct of freewill are discussed and an analysis of related theoretical trends and convergent...
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Religious Values of Counselors, Psychologist, and College Students
The reported religious values of a sample of licensed professional counselors, psychologists, and upper division college students were examined. The survey assessed level of religiosity, religious enhancement (i.e., religion seen as a positive influence),...
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A Mexican American Perspective: The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Family Functioning
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self esteem and perceptions of family-of origin among persons of Mexican descent. The results demonstrated highly significant, though relatively low, correlations between self esteem...
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Exemplary Supervision Practices: Retrospective Observations of Experienced Counselor
This article features results of a qualitative inquiry conducted to obtain veteran counselors' analyses of supervision they experienced as exemplary and conducive to professional growth. The supervisory relationships emerged as an essential core of exemplary...
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Alcohol Use Patterns and Perceptions of Substance Abuse among University Music Majors: A Preliminary Investigation
This paper reports university music majors' self reported drinking habits and perceptions of chemical use among music majors and professional musicians. Reported drinking levels of the sample were generally lower than national college student averages....
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Strengthening the Mother-Daughter Relationship through Bibliotherapy and Story Telling
This article is written primarily for school and community counselors who endeavor to promote a success identity for young, adolescent and adult females. It describes bibliotherapy and story telling as methods for facilitating positive mother-daughter...
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Counselors in the Broadcast Media: Professional and Ethical Considerations
As counseling professionals become more active in broadcast media presentations, they are encountering ethical situations that are not specifically defined in codes of ethics. Media interactions are new arenas for counselors, and mental health professionals...
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Solutions Step by Step: A Substance Abuse Treatment Demonstration
Berg, I. K. and Reuss, N. H. (1997) Solutions Step by Step: A Substance Abuse Treatment Demonstration. New York: W. W. Norton Reviewed by Carolyn H. Crawford and L. Elaine Akins This review is designed to introduce counselors, counselor interns and counselor...
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Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring

Editorial Perspective
Theory is the creative architectural product of reason and experience. Despite thousands of years of inquiry within various disciplines, humans continue to theoretically, experientially and experimentally explore the mysteries of their own existence....
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Developmental Theories: It's Time to Review
Classical developmental theorists have weathered criticism and stimulated a great amount of research. Since counselors often use many of these theorists' ideas as benchmarks .for understanding individuals and their problems, it is good practice to review...
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Adlerian Counseling: A Viable Approach for Contemporary Practice
Alfred Adler died in 1937 having created a personality theory and approach to counseling so_far ahead of his time that many contemporary approaches have "discovered" many of Adler fundamental conclusions, often without recognition of his vision and influence....
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Viktor Frankl's Logotherapy: Spirituality and Meaning in the New Millennium
Logotherapy, an existential holistic approach developed by Viktor E. Frankl, has been called the third Viennese school of psychotherapyfollowing Freudian psychoanalysis and Adlerian individual psychology. This article presents the philosophy, historical...
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Cognitively-Based Counseling: Current State and Future Directions
This article provides an overview of the history, current status and future directions of a variety of cognitively-based counseling paradigms. Cognitively-based counseling has generated special interest over the past two decades as a "meeting place"...
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Choice Theory and Reality Therapy
This article presents a current overview of the concepts of Choice Theory and the process of Reality Therapy as developed by Dr. William Glasses A historical perspective, a rationale for the need of a new psychology, and continuing advancements of the...
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The Clinical Utility of Systems Theory in Counseling Practice
Systems theory is a useful perspective fbr conceptualizing a wide variety of human issues. This article introduces the reader to the core constructs of systemic ideology and theory; provides an overview of the concepts of structure, interaction, and...
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Turn over Any Stone
Turn Over Any Stone Hong, Edna (1973) Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House; Augsburg Publishing House Edna Hong's Turn Over Any Stone is the experiential recounting of one woman's search for meaning in a world of suffering and seemingly meaningless events....
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Vol. 27, No. 2, Fall

Editorial Perspective
As the days of the second millennial September Song dwindle down to a precious few, the quite melodic and beautiful recurrent chords and final refrains of the 1990's are too often interrupted by unanswered questions concerning the discords of human behavior...
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Topic 1: Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Counseling
Do humans have free will? I believe that the constructs of free will and human goodness (or good intentions) have been so emphasized that the population in general has become overwhelmed by self-centeredness, self-expression, self-willfulness and selfishness....
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Cultural Self-Exploration Questionnaire
This article presents the Cultural Self-Exploration Questionnaire, which was designed to assist counselors, counselors-in-training, counselor educators and supervisors develop self-awareness of their personal culturally-based prejudices, assumptions,...
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Counseling Substance Abusing Offenders: Issues and Strategies
This article addresses substance abuse and addiction counseling within the criminal justice system. Issues reviewed and discussed include methods of assessment, treatment options, voluntary versus involuntary treatment, and the lack of fully qualified...
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Relocation Effects on American Children
Change associated with relocation is a disruptive element, especially for children because of their sense of lack ofcontrol and the stressful demands placed on their adaptive coping skills. Evidence suggests that moving raises numerous emotional issues...
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Development of a Grief Workshop at a Community College
Unexpected deaths which impact college campus populations occur quite frequently. Such traumatic experiences often force students to deal with death for the first time. This article presents an overview of a grief workshop that was developed following...
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Career Counseling in Schools: Multicultural and Developmental Perspectives
What do I want to be when I grow up? Answers to this question, from the perspective of career counseling, involve complex issues in today's rapidly changing world. It no longer is a simple task nor is it appropriate to divide people into categories based...
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The Texas Counseling Association 1943-1999
The Texas Counseling Association (TCA), originally a part of the Texas State Teachers Association, and later known as the Texas Guidance Association, the Texas Personnel and Guidance Association, and the Texas Association for Counseling and Development,...
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Memories of Charlotte McKay and TCA
Guidelines, June/July, 1980 NEW TPGA SECRETARY HIRED Charlotte R. McKay has been hired as the new TPGA Staff Secretary, replacing Dessie Lee Honeycutt who resigned on April 1, 1980. Charlotte was born and grew up in Georgia, but for the past 18 years...
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Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring

Topic 1: Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Counseling: View of Humanity
Do humans have free will? The construct of freewill and topics and issues associated with freewill continue to be the concern of many disciplines which attempt to explain human behavior. One of the issues related to freewill is the question concerning...
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Tiopic 2: Toward an American Counseling Philosophy Consistent with Diversity: Truth and Reality
Does truth exist? Does objective truth exist in knowable form? Or not? As for truth and reality, I believe that the environment in which one functions is that person's reality, and that his or her truth is whatever that person perceives it to be. In...
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Composition of the Psychological Ionosphere: A Closer Look at Environmentally Framed Counselor Supervision
This article provides a continuation and in-depth examination of the ionospheric layer of the metaphorical, psychological atmosphere first proposed in Valadez and Garcia (1998). Continuing with the case example presented in the original presentation,...
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Counseling Services in Texas Schools for Students Who Are Deaf
This article reports the general results of a study designed to gather information about the professional training, credentials, language and communication skills, service delivery, and demographic characteristics of Texas school counselors currently...
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Precipitating Variables and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Battered Hispanic Woman: A Pilot Study
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of prior history of abuse and severity of abuse to the incidence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among battered Hispanic women. Chi-Square analyses identified no significant relationship...
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Facilitating Identity Formation for Adolescent Girls Using Experientially-Based Outdoor Activities
Recent research reveals that adolescent females experience a tremendous decrease in self-esteem and self-worth. In this article, the authors provide an overview of female psychological development, as well as an explanation of the female adolescent s...
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Writing Resusmes Right: A Decade Later
Employers from two hundred ninety-nine companies responded to a survey on electronic resume practices. Nearly a third of the companies electronically scan resumes. The results indicate that electronic technology is influencing the way job seekers develop...
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School Counseling and Referrals: A Negotiated Beginning
This article presents an eleven-step model that school counselors can use to manage the referrals that they receive from teachers, parents, or administrators. The process of negotiating outcome goals with both the referred student and other parties involved...
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Saving Childhood: Protecting Our Children from the National Assault on Innocence
Medved, M. and Medved, D. (1998) Saving Childhood: Protecting our Children from the National Assault on Innocence New York: Harper Collins, 324 pages. In Saving Childhood: Protecting our Children from the National Assault on Innocence, authors Michael...
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Vol. 26, No. 2, Fall

From the Editor
During the summer of 1998, C-SPAN provided live coverage of a program heralded as The Great American Think-Off, in which average U. S. citizens debated a philosophical question. No professional philosophers participated in the debate, and the judges...
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Constructivist Couseling: A Primer
Constructivism has become a major influence in counseling and psychology. Various trends of constructivist thought and the historical origins of these trends are discussed, including Kelly's theory of personal constructs, developmental constructivism,...
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In a Different Light: An Environmental Metaphor of Couselor Supervision
In counselor supervision, the acquisition of skills or development of therapeutic techniques is stressed and evaluated. In the present conceptualization, the intrapsychic/interpersonal dynamics of the supervisee's subjective experiences in supervision...
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The Effects of the Couseling Center Self-Guided Tour on Student Knowledge about a Specific Counseling Center
The effects of using a computer program, which provides information about a university counseling center on the level of student knowledge about the center are described. The Counseling Center Self-Guided Tour (CCSGT) computer program covers such topics...
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Attributions of Responsibility for Depression of Menopausal Women
This study investigated responsibility attributions for the cause of and solution to depression of menopausal women. Traditional college-age students (n = 162) and menopausal women (n = 103) read a vignette describing a help-seeker who was identified...
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Forgiveness as an Intervention in Contextual Family Therapy: Two Case Examples
This article examines how forgiveness has been used in the past as an intervention in individual and family therapy and summarizes the contextual model of therapy which supports its use. The article also defines and explains the concepts of forgiveness...
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Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring

From the Editor
Last issue I shared with you the conflicted feelings of excitement and anxiety I was experiencing as I began my tenure as Executive Editor of the TCA Journal. As I write these words I am again experiencing conflicted feelings. I feel both excited and...
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Metal Health Assessment by Licensed Professional Counselors in Texas
This article examines the role of assessment in diagnosis and treatment planning. The author differentiates assessment, testing, and diagnosis, and explores misunderstandings concerning use of the term psychological" by professional counselors as well...
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Trichotillomania: Its Classification and Treatment
Trichotillomania is categorized as an Impulse-Control Disorder. The following article brings to light that this disorder man not be as rare as some clinicians think. The following discussion delineates Trichotillomania in terms of its descriptive characteristics,...
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School Counseling: Is Teaching Experience Necessary?
This paper discusses the on-going debate regarding teaching certification and experience as a requirement or prerequisite for school counseling certification, and suggests that certification and experience is based more on biased tradition than research...
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A Comparison of Bernard's Discrimination Model and Nance's Developmental Model of Supervision: An Application to the Preparation of Graduate Students on Counseling Programs
This article presents a supervision case study written from two perspectives: Bernard's (1979) Discrimination Model and Nance's (1990) Developmental Model. The article illustrates these two models of supervision and their application to a 16-week semester...
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Sixty-One Successful Strategies for Fostering Family Involvement in Schools
This article presents strategies, contributed by 140 school counselors in South Texas, that have proven to be successful in fostering greater family involvement in schools. Research suggests that forming strong school-family partnerships positively impacts...
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The Crime of Sexual Assault: A Trap for Professional Counselors and Clergy
In 1993 and in 1995, the State of Texas passed laws making mental health service providers and clergymen criminally liable for sexually exploiting their patients and communicants. The model for these laws is the statutory rape law. The current sexual...
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Free Will: Readings in Philosophy
Up from the grave! Lazarus will simply not stay dead. Once declared by some members of the American Psychological Association as the ghost of times past that had been theoretically exorcised and laid permanently to rest, the age-old philosophical controversy...
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Crisis Counseling for a Quality School Community: Applying William Glasser's Choice Theory
Palmatier, L.L. (Ed.) (1997). Crisis Counseling for a Quality School Community: Applying William Glasser's Choice Theory. Washington, D.C.: Accelerated Development. 505 pages. The ambitious purpose of the book is to help counselors with "transforming...
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Counseling the Aging and Their Families
Dietch, I., & Howell, C.W. (Eds.) (1997). Counseling the Aging and Their Families. Alexandria VA: American Counseling Association. 155 pages. With the graying of America and the ever changing structure of the American family, we as counselors are...
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Brief Counseling That Works: A Solution-Focused Approach for School Counselors
Sklare, G. B. (1997). Brief Counseling That Works: A Solution-Focused Approach for School Counselors. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 121 pages. The purpose of Sklare's book is to provide overburdened school counselors with a time efficient, theoretically...
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