NAWA: Journal of Language and Communication

Nawa Journal of Language and Communication is a journal published bi-annually by the Department of Communication, Polytechnic of Namibia. It is a peer-reviewed journal whose goal is to advance knowledge in human language and communication.

Articles

Vol. 8, No. 1, June

Factors Contributing to Technology-Enabled Distractions in the Classroom: A Case Study of Students at the Polytechnic of Namibia
1. Introduction Numerous studies have emphasized the benefits of laptops, tablets, mobile devices, and the Internet in the classroom (Maki, Maki, Patterson and Whittaker, 2000; Saunders and Klemming, 2003; Wen, Tsai and Chang, 2004). These studies...
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Lexical Borrowing and the Inter-Dental Fricative Challenge in Ndebele
1. Introduction The Ndebele like other African cultures were hunter gatherers when colonialism came. They however, had their own civilisation and this civilisation was never described in terms that included the inter-dental fricative sounds. White...
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Can Namibia Become a Regional Gateway by Developing a Logistics Hub around Walvis Bay's Port?
1. INTRODUCTION Dispersion of production sites due to globalization, focussed factories and risk aversion has led to an increase in the flow of physical goods, financials and information across the world. Specialized globalized supply chains are...
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Code-Switching in Doctor-Patient Communication
Introduction Doctor-patient communication has a central clinical function in building therapeutic relationships, doctor and patient satisfaction, clinical competence of the doctor and effective delivery of health care, which is the heart and art...
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Dust
Dust. Yvonne Adhiambo Owuor. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013; pp 369. Dust is Yvonne Adhiambo Owour's debut novel which has captivated the world literary scene. Set in East African Kenya, the novel chronicles universal truths about the cruel beauty...
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Vol. 7, No. 2, December

Using Discussion Forums to Mediate Learning in Higher Education: A Literature Review through an Activity Theory Lens
1. Introduction Ineffective use of ICT tools in mediating learning remains a challenge in Higher Education. As instructors in Higher Education are impressed by the use of technology in education, they have developed a culture of adopting any ICT...
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The Vital Role of Conflict Interpreters
1. Introduction Conflict is part of our lives, and has been since the beginning of time. As Carl von Clausewitz once said: "war is simply a continuation of political intercourse with the addition of other means," (Von Clausewitz 1976, p. 605). Conflict...
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Rethinking Survival: Metaphors of Hope and Peaceful Conflict Resolution Methods during Crisis Times
Introduction This paper is about the literary representation of the persistence of hope during times of political repression and ways of negotiating survival, as well as peacefully coping with perceived tyrannical regimes. As a form of rhetoric...
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A Sociolinguistic Study of Shekgalagari: Issues of Survival in the Shadow of Setswana
1.0 Introduction 1.1 The classification of Shekgalagari Shekgalagari is the spelling of the language adopted in this paper. Otherwise alternate spellings found in the literature are Shekgalagadi, Qhalaxadi, Qalaqarzi, Kxalaxari, Khalagari Khalakadi....
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Americanah
Americanah by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (2013) London, England: Harper Collins. In the 21st century globalisation and global movements have had a significant impact on the kinds of literature that have been written. Diasporic writing has multiplied...
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Vol. 7, No. 1, June

Preserving Oral Traditions: Some Reflections on Students' Performances during Cultural Festivals Held at the Polytechnic of Namibia (Namibia's University of Science and Technology) from 2009 to 2012
Abstract This paper analyses the role of tertiary institutions in the preservation of oral traditions and cultures in Namibia, with specific reference to cultural festivals held from 2009 to 2012 at the Polytechnic of Namibia. A number of institutions...
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Confronting the Language Issues in Obtaining Informed Consent for Health-Related Research
Abstract The large number of studies on the readability and understandability of informed consent forms used in health research testifies to their problematic nature and to their authors' inability to simplify them. With the attendant risk to the...
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Celebrating Black American Women's Lives: An Analysis of Alice Walker's Selected Texts
Abstract From the American Revolution to the present, African American female writers have not only articulated the physical horrors of the female slave, but have also celebrated the black American women's lives through their works. For Walker,...
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Whose Literacy?-A Case for Ethnic Literature in Children's Education
Abstract This paper considers the value of ethnic literature (EL) and its contribution to the development of human potential in an environment dominated by foreign concepts, styles, tastes and symbols. These are transmitted, not only by school,...
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Metaphors of Changing Identities, Resilience and Cultural Transformation for Survival in Times of Crisis
Abstract This paper is an exploration of the literary representations of survival and coping strategies during times of socio-economic upheavals. Charles Mungoshi's short story entitled "The Hare" is critically analysed and the two major characters...
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Language Use and Abuse: The English Language in Chikwava's Harare North and Gappah's an Elegy for Easterly
Abstract Has the English language (since its inception in the heyday of colonialism) remained the same, especially to its recipients, the second language speakers? What are the most visible manifestations of its evolution or change, if any? With...
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A Feast for the Imagination: An Exploration of Narrative Elements of the Text and Hypertext of Song of Ice and Fire by George R.R. Martin
Abstract Fantasy novel as a sub-genre of children's literature has crossed over to the adult world resulting in the rapid growth of adult fantasy fiction in the last ten years. George R.R. Martins' A Song of Ice and Fire, consisting of five volumes...
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Vol. 6, No. 2, December

A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Traditional Marriages in Lesotho
Introduction Marriage is generally known to be a union between two people, usually a man and a woman. However, in Lesotho, like in other African cultures, marriage is more than just a union between two individuals. In Lesotho, marriage can be considered...
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Ability Grouping and Academic Performance: Perceptions of Secondary School Pupils in Masvingo, Zimbabwe
Introduction and Background One of the many challenges facing educators in Zimbabwe and the world over is the decision on how to allocate students to classrooms, subjects and groups, since pupils differ in a number of aspects. Pupils throughout...
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Secondary School Teachers' Conception of Communicative Language Teaching: A Case for Masvingo District-Zimbabwe
Introduction This study has been prompted by Nyota and Mareva's (2010) (unpublished) study of English language teaching in Masvingo urban and peri-urban secondary schools, which established that the traditional Structural Approach-based methods...
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Derivation and Adaptation of Acronyms in Ndebele
Introduction Ndebele borrows lexical and phonological elements from contact languages. However, due to its prestige, colonialism and technological advancement, most loans come from English. English and Ndebele both use the Roman alphabet, but they...
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A Summary Test: Criterion for Majoring in the English Language and Literature at the University of Botswana
Introduction English Second Language students who have just entered the world of academia are faced with a daunting task of learning in another language. For the majority of students at the Colleges of Education and the University of Botswana, English...
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Is "English-Centric Bilingualism" Suffocating Namibian National and Indigenous Languages?
Background When Namibia gained its independence in 1990, policy makers were faced with the difficulty of establishing an official language for the newly-created republic. Issues such as the negative connotations attached to Afrikaans as the language...
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Restoration of Harmony in Shakespeare's Last Plays
Introduction The writing of this essay is influenced by the fact that English literature has been phased out in many schools in Lesotho, especially at high school level. The implication of phasing out the subject is that students miss out on many...
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History and the Ideology of Narrative in Charles Mungoshi's Ndiko Kupindana Kwamazuva (1975)
Introduction Charles Muzuva Mungoshi is one of Zimbabwe's leading Action writers today. The author is well known for his creative works in English. His Waiting for the Rain (1975) is internationally acclaimed as probably the best novel to have emerged...
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Images of Zimbabwean Women in the New Millennium: A Literary Analysis of Commuter Omnibus Posters
Introduction The commuter omnibus in Zimbabwe is by far the largest means of transport of most urban commuters. No other means of transport rivals it, especially since there are no urban trains, and few commuters own cars. However, even though the...
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Vol. 6, No. 1, June

A Pragmatic Analysis of Selected British and Nigerian Funeral Orations
Introduction Funeral oration has become one of the rites included in burials all over the world. It refers to the formal speeches made during funeral ceremonies. Such speeches are usually made by dignified individuals who are in one way or another...
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Narrative, Point of View and Freudian Psychiatry in Roald Dahl's "Georgy Porgy"
Introduction What would it feel like to be swallowed by a woman? How does it feel to live in a woman's stomach? George could tell you all about it. This bizarre main character created by Roald Dahl tells us his story in "Georgy Porgy". In this short...
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Representing Silenced Violence: A Stylistic Analysis
Since 'official' history has often overlooked the violence that colonised peoples experienced both during colonialism and during the regimes following it, an important issue in postcolonial literature is to re-read history and to present alternative...
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A SWOT Analysis of the Department of Communication in Regard to Its Provision of English Communication Courses: A Case of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Professional Purposes (EPP)
Introduction When she presented her June 2011 conference paper titled, "Pressing the right button to motivate student learning in a multicultural African context", Buyiso Ige of the University of Cape Town's Academic Development Unit noted the following...
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Cognitive Stylistics and Petit Recit: An Examination of the Narrative Consciousness in the God of Small Things
In the past 50 years, post-colonial writing has grown into an exciting body of literature which challenges the norms of traditional publications not just in terms of the themes, but also in developing new forms of expression. Writers from different...
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James Hogg, "Basil Lee" and the Pragmatics of Highland Masculinity
Introduction By considering the picaresque figure of Basil Lee in Winter Evening Tales (1820) this paper will illustrate how Scottish writer James Hogg (1770-1835) deconstructs the mystique of Highland masculinity which, in early-nineteenth century...
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Time and Transitions in Larkin's Poetry
The view of collocation taken in this paper is the Neo-Firthian, dynamic view of collocation favoured in corpus linguistics. This view of collocation is best expressed by Williams and Millon: "... [T]raditional phraseology, and much pre-corpus lexicography,...
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Friendliness, Aggressiveness and Coarseness: Scottish Groundskeeper Willie's Linguistic Features in the Simpsons
Groundskeeper Willie and the Discursive Function of Stereotypes Among the recurring characters in the American animated TV series The Simpsons (Twentieth Century Fox, 1989-present), and among the people in the Actional town of Springfield where...
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Hakahana: Anthology of Poetry by Hugh Ellis
HAKAHANA ANTHOLOGY OF POETRY BY HUGH ELLIS Windhoek: Wordweaver Publishing House. 2012 A superb publication, with a thoughtful juxtaposition of brilliant photo-graphs and refreshing lines of poetry, the slim anthology Hakahana by Hugh Ellis...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, December

Urban Lives and the Complexities of Change: Cultural Transformation for Survival in Contemporary Zimbabwean Fiction
Introduction The so called Zimbabwean crisis, which resulted in world inflation records, a protracted political impasse and economic meltdown, overshadowed many forms of economic, social and political productivity. Yet the cultural sphere was one...
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Freudianism, Hermeneutics and the Dance Motif in Two Post 2000 Zimbabwean Short Stories
Introduction There has been a proliferation of dance styles that reflect and interpret contemporary life in Zimbabwe since 2000. A corresponding fictionalisation of dance has occurred in video as in literature. However, the growth of dance and its...
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The 'Small House' in the Era of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic: The Case of the Shona in Zimbabwe
Introduction The term 'small house' has been coined by the Shona to refer to an extramarital relationship, the 'married man-girlfriend' relationship, one not sanctioned by society. Normally this relationship is loose since it is solely by the mutual...
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Getting the Message Across: A Critical Consideration of Selected Political Cartoons on AIDS in South Africa
Getting the message across: a critical consideration of selected political cartoons on AIDS in South Africa. ... to survive ... in this immensely stressful profession, the political cartoonist has to sit down each day with a blank sheet of paper,...
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Okinawa's Anti-Base Protest in Japan's National Newspapers
Since September 2009 in which the Democratic Party of Japan came to power, Washington raised concerns about its campaign promises to call for a more "equal partnership" with the United States. A critical media approach to the newspaper coverage over...
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Toward Context-Driven Idiosyncrasies of CHI in the Chinese "CHI+NP" Construction
A Brief Survey of Some Typical Uses of the CHI+NP Expressions in Chinese The CHI+NP ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] +NP) expression is not simply a verb-object construction which usually entails some syntactic constraint of the verb over the...
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Black Skin White Retronym: The Case of the Ndebele Ethnocentric Retronym
Introduction Retronyms have been classified by Ndebele linguists under compound nouns, and no further description is proffered. It is important to note that retronyms are a peculiar type of compound noun. Concepts are grouped together by similarity...
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Peace, Conflict Management and the Ndebele Proverb
Introduction An interrogation of the Ndebele proverbs proves that all societies had their own idiosyncratic ways of maintaining peace and resolving conflicts rooted their histories, traditions and predispositions. It cannot be gainsaid that immanent...
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Rethinking Advertising in Corporate Institutions: The Case of the Zimbabwean Banking Sector
Introduction Advertising has become one of the main sources of popular culture in modern capitalist society. Apart from offering news regarding products to people, they also transfer stereotypes, beliefs and values of the society to reproduce the...
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The Forgotten Stories: The Case of Difficulties Encountered by Ndebele Ordinary and Advanced Students Studying Zulu Literature Texts
Background There are two schools of thought about the history of the Ndebele language. One school of thought claims that Ndebele is a Zulu dialect basing the argument on the fact that the two languages are very closely related. This prompted the...
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The ABC's of Literacy and Learning: A Case Study of Preschooling in Gaborone, Botswana
Background to preschool education in Botswana The Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Program was recognized as essential in the preparation of children for basic education in the Revised National Policy on Education (RNPE, 1994) in Botswana....
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Vol. 4, No. 2, December

An Analysis of English Errors Made by Polytechnic of Namibia Students
1.1 Introduction/Background On the attainment of her independence, Namibia elected to make English the official language in preference to Afrikaans which was the lingua franca at that time. Ever since, English has been the medium of instruction...
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The Marriage of Academic and Critical Literacy in Equipping the Namibian ESL Tertiary Student
Introduction A number of scholars have occupied themselves with attempts to capture the essence of the term literacy. Literacy used to be understood as the ability to read and write in a language--the opposite being illiteracy. Nowadays, however,...
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Relating Oral Classroom Anxiety and Unwillingness to Communicate to Linguistic Proficiency
Introduction Speaking English is very important, but yet remains a challenge to English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. This has been confirmed by previous researchers (Horwitz and Cope, 1986, Phillips, 1992, Scott, 1986). As a result, educators,...
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The Language Dilemma of the Deaf Child: An Educator's Viewpoint
Introduction and background The development of language and communication is the area of main emphasis in the education of children with hearing impairments. It has been discovered that the child who is deaf in Zimbabwe faces a language dilemma...
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Using a Discussion Forum to Promote Communication on HIV/AIDS Issues among Young People
Introduction Discussion forums have a potential to play an important role in the fight against HIV/AIDS among young people, particularly in relating information and promoting communication on issues related to the disease. Lack of open communication...
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The Language of Dress among the Sub-Cultural Group of the Dzimbabwe People in Masvingo, Zimbabwe
Introduction and Background of Study The silent language of dress has been acknowledged by different societies across the globe. People, whether knowingly or unknowingly, are using the language of dress to communicate different messages. Sign language...
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Agency and Gender in Setswana Marriage Ceremonies: 'Patlo' and 'Go Laya' Rituals
"In Botswana a man marries a woman; the other way round is madness" (Report of the Law Reform Committee of the Botswana Parliament 1986). 'Patlo' (marriage negotiations/seeking a woman's hand in marriage) and 'Go laya' (pre-marital counselling)...
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Taboos and the Prenatal Period among the Ndebele: An Africana Womanist Approach
Introduction The use of an Africana womanist approach to analyse taboos and the African woman might sound a bit odd, but if we consider the historical background of Africana womanism as a theory and its major purpose one is then able to see the...
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The Use of English Language as the Medium of Instruction in the Zimbabwean Junior Primary Schools
Introduction and background to the study Raising the quality of teaching and learning in Zimbabwe has emerged as one of the challenges and priority of the government and as a key factor in the improvement of education across the country. What has...
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An Analysis of the Language Used in Communication on Climate Change
Background to climate change In 1827, Frenchman Jean Baptiste Fourier was the first to use the green house analogy to explain how the earth is kept warmer than otherwise. During the 1890s Swedish scientist, Svante Arrhenius together with Thomas...
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The Language of Instruction across the Early Childhood Development Curriculum in Zimbabwe: Stakeholders' Perceptions
Introduction The New Approach to teaching and learning in English in early childhood development was initiated by Joana Moyo's new approach experiment of 1975 at Hope Fountain Mission in Matabeleland. In the experiment, children were taught in English...
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Language Use in Shona Naming of Pets: An Ethico-Epistemological Perspective
Introduction Naming of things pervades human history. It is a necessary practice not only for identifying one thing from another, but also to reflect social undercurrents operating at a certain epoch in people's lives. Thus, names are meant to convey...
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A Socio-Pragmatic Study of the Use of Email by NUL Students
Introduction It is always an exciting experience when young people come to the university for the first time. Scholars have been interested in how young people manage this transition and become integrated into campus. Existing research has identified...
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Multilingualism and Self-Translation: Are We Different Because We Speak Different Languages?
Nowadays multilingualism is a fact, at least in most countries in the world, and many people speak more than two or three languages without difficulty. That was not always the case. The 19th century was the era of monolingual cultures, colonialism,...
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Apemanship: A Critique of the Modernisation Theory in Ngugi Wa Thiong'o's Selected Works and Clement Chihota's "Shipwreck" in No More Plastic Balls
Introduction Broadly speaking, apemanship refers to the general tendency by Africans to uncritically and slavishly imitate the western philosophies and values. It has its foundations in the belief that because the whites conquered and colonized,...
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An Analysis of the Influences of Discourse in the Anthology: Zimbabwean Poetry in English
Introduction Zimbabwean Poetry in English, compiled and introduced by Kizito Muchemwa (1978: xii) as poetry that '... shows no definite direction of growth in its early stages ... ,' is a multi-voice anthology of pioneering work reflecting various...
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Erasure of Girlhoods, Inscriptions of Womanhood: A Study of Erased Girlhoods in Selected Zimbabwean Fiction
Introduction There has been, in recent times, a surge in girlhood studies within feminist scholarship and this has transformed feminist discourses in fundamental ways. The result has been the endowing of girls with distinct space within the feminist...
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Endo- and Exo-Bleaching: A Helicopter View of Selected African Literature
Introduction and Conceptual Framework Bleaching refers to whitening using chemicals or sunlight. When referring to people bleaching normally refers to use of chemicals to alter one's skin pigment from dark to white. In this sense it is the outside...
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The Bane of Pan-Africanism: Xenophobic Chauvinism and the Politics of Exclusion in Selected Zimbabwean Short Stories
Introduction The Pan-African Dream Deferment Pan-Africanism is and has always been an ideal that Africans have hankered for, for a long time. During the fight for independence, African countries gave succour to each other and undertook to help...
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Emasculated by the Crisis: Representations of the Struggling Fathers in Selected Contemporary Zimbabwean Literature
Introduction The "Zimbabwean crisis" of the past decade in the new millennium (which bests manifests in the world inflation record for countries not at war) changed lives, social and cultural codes in the most remarkable of ways. For the ordinary...
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The Significance of the Shona Proverb in Zimbabwe's Contemporary Political Dispensation
Introduction Today in some African countries civil wars, political gerrymandering, turmoil and general civil strife through undemocratic and bad governance have been witnessed. Oppression has also undermined the principle of democracy through institutions...
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Sithole, Nkomo and Muzorewa and the Birth of Zimbabwe: A Reconsideration of Autobiography as a Literary Mode of National History
Introduction The making of Zimbabwe, which came into fruition in 1980, was as a result of an arduous process and has been evaluated differently by a number of contemporary historians, social scientists and even political theologians. Until a full...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, June

Bending the Lambic Pentameter: The Political Economy of Experience in Teaching and Learning Poetry
Scanning a poem is not exact science and readers can sometimes see different patterns according to the way they believe a line should sound. Sara Thorne The problem is that the hurricane does not roar in [iambic] pentameters. Edward Kamau Braithwaite...
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Semiotic Exploration of the Inscriptions on Public Vehicle Walls
Introduction and data-gathering process The study focuses on what public vehicle owners decide to write on their vehicles. This is in addition to the mandatory number plate, speed specifications per road type and destination. Most operators have...
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An Analysis of the Relevance of Ndebele Political Wisdom as Reflected in Their Proverbs
Introduction Proverbs are a literary genre, which has been used by the Ndebele people in present day Zimbabwe since their arrival in the late 1830s to express their understanding of the environment. In the words of Chinua Achebe (1958: 5) proverbs...
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An Investigation into the Introduction of a Post-Graduate Certificate in the Teaching of English in Namibia
2.1 Background Namibia won its independence twenty years ago and since then has implemented an education policy which clearly states that "teaching in higher education must be organised to cultivate and sustain a culture of disciplined thinking...
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"Okay, Let's Make Soaps Real": Women, Soaps and Cultural Imperialism with Special Reference to Sunset Beach
Background and Introduction The main focus of this study, carried out between 2000 and 2001, was to investigate how selected groups of Zimbabwean women related to images from soap operas, especially the soap Sunset Beach. This investigation was...
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On Universities Ranking: Hype or Substance?
Introduction When rankings of universities are released every year, universities managers retain their breath until they discover that their institutions have either gone down, in which case the rankings are biased, inaccurate and flawed, or their...
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The Need for a Centre for Setswana Studies
Introduction One of the recommendations of the 1977 Report of the National Commission on Education (henceforth RNCE) is that "the University should establish a Centre for Setswana Studies which could assist the development of Setswana reading materials"...
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Why Tertiary Students Largely Fail Beginning Computer Programming Courses at the Polytechnic of Namibia: Different Perceptions, Common Recommendations
Background Students of computer programming at the Polytechnic of Namibia (PoN) are much more likely to fail than to pass their first course. While opinions about the causes for this problem vary, and several strategies have been employed over the...
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An Ethno-Linguistic Approach to the Study of Address Terms in Lesotho
1. Introduction In every community/society, there are specific norms which can be considered as rules of conduct that guide the behaviour of the members of that community. Goffman (1964:474) contends that "the rules of conduct constitute part of...
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An Exploration of Psychosocial Effects of Poverty on Child Development in Ngundu, Zimbabwe
Introduction Hunter (2000) posits that current estimates indicate that more than 200 million children under the age of Ave in developing countries are at risk of not developing to their full potential because of poverty and HIV/AIDS. Poverty is...
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Undisciplined Heart
Book Review: Undisciplined Heart Author: Jane Katjavivi Publication Date: 2010 Publisher: Modjaji Books: ISBN 978-1-920397-04-3 Tigereye Publishing: ISBN 978-99945-71-06-2 Jane Katjavivi's autobiography, Undisciplined Heart (2010) is an...
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