Harvard International Review

This journal provides commentary, news and analysis of global developments in politics, economics, public policy, science and culture.

Articles from Vol. 22, No. 3, Fall

Anatomy of a Balkan Massacre
The Failure of International Peackeeping at Srebrenica The mission as they knew it was over. As the promised air support never materialized and the Bosnian Serbs completed their conquest of the town, new orders came for the Dutch peacekeepers charged...
A Revitalized Trade Agenda
Complications and Directions in World Trade Policy This year, America's trade agenda concerns much of the world and an enormous array of issues. But each of our initiatives ultimately shares common goals: to create opportunities to raise the living...
Back to the Great Game
Chronicling the Race for Central Asia Ten years have passed since the publication of Peter Hopkirk's ground-breaking The Great Game, still considered the Holy Grail for Great Game aficionados. Hopkirk introduced a new generation of readers to the...
Best Defense
The US Role in the European Defense Identity At the European Union Helsinki Summit in December 1999, EU leaders took a major step toward establishing a European military identity. They agreed to organize by the year 2003 a "Rapid Reaction Force"...
Boardrooms and Bombs
Strategies of Multinational Corporations in Conflict Areas War is "in" these days. In the last decade, the dampening blanket of the Cold Warbas has been pulled away, bringing oxygen to hotbeds of conflict around the globe. Multilateral organizations...
Chechnya: Moscow's Revenge
The Human-Rights Debacle in Chechnya The period of respite is over. After three years of uneasy calm, Chechnya once more finds itself in the grip of war. The Khasavyurt Accords of August 31, 1996, which brought an end to two years of conflict, were...
Children of War
Conflict's Impact on Youth On July 27, 1985, a 15-year-old Ugandan boy and his mother went to lock the gate of their house after hearing news of a military coup. A young girl who was a friend of the family came running toward their house, chased...
China's Forgotten Dissenters
The Long Fuse of Xinjiang While the struggles for liberation in Kosovo, East Timor, and Chechnya have taken turns capturing the world's attention, the Chinese province of Xinjiang is quietly continuing its own rebellion. This predominantly Muslim...
Comfort Costs
Scandinavian Welfare States For unemployed workers in Scandinavia, getting a job can mean losing as much as 50 percent of income. The extravagant unemployment benefits provided in the Scandinavian countries are just one aspect of their famously...
David with Goliath
International Cooperation and the Campaign to Ban Landmines The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) was formally launched by six nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in October 1992. It galvanized world opinion against anti-personnel...
Disastrous Relief
Turkey's Earthquake Response Last fall, the world's attention was riveted on Turkey after two disastrous earthquakes struck Izmit and Duzce, causing over 20,000 deaths. While Turkey was still experiencing aftershocks, aid flowed in from all parts...
Economic Sense and Nonsense
Misconceptions of the Global Economy Regarded as one of the world's most influential economic thinkers, Jagdish Bhagwati has had a significant impact on economic discourse in both political and academic circles. He is currently professor of economics...
Green Trade
Economic Integration meets the Environment Only months after the failure of the WTO Ministerial Conference Seattle, few topics appear to be more important than the relationship between international trade and the environment. With international...
Humanitarian Intervention Revisited
Is There a Universal Policy? By the time we have come to the point of discussing intervention of one kind or another, we are on the edge of failure. The situation has become desperate. Identification, prevention, and deterrence have failed, and...
LETTERS to the Editor
Optimism Vanishing in Central Asia From the outset, I must disclaim any competence as a former Kremlinologist, or indeed as a political analyst of Central Asian affairs. Unlike the American authors of the symposium in the Winter 1999/2000 Harvard...
Libya Opens Up
A Thaw in Political Relations with the West In 1986, Ronald Reagan, citing instances of terrorist activity, called Libya's de facto dictator Muammar Qaddafi "the mad dog of the Middle East." In 1999, Alastair King-Smith, charge d'affaires at...
Politics of the Fourth Estate
The Interplay of Media and Politics in Foreign Policy Debate about how news coverage affects foreign policy swings between those who claim that the media have little impact on the policy-making process and others who argue that press influence is...
Schroeder's Choice
Streamlining Germany Inc. In recent years, the economic inclusiveness promised by the old German economy has increasingly become a myth. Unemployment close to 10 percent has been blamed largely on the overly protective policies of the "Germany,...
Six Billion and Counting
Population Management at the Millennium Last year marked not only the end of the century but also a demographic milestone: the world's population reached six billion. Should we be celebrating or worrying? The answer is both. Behind the number lies...
The Difficulty of Apology
Japan's Struggle with Memory and Guilt The complex relationship between domestic politics and war issues makes war guilt a controversial topic in Japan. Japan's World War II occupation of a substantial part of Asia left indelible scars. The Nanking...
The Self-Restrained Superpower
Entangling Relations and US Foreign Policy Great power beckons the United States and threatens other nations. Effective leadership at home and abroad recognizes this tension and seeks creative solutions. In today's unipolar world, the United States...
The Track Not Taken
Personal Reflections on State Department Intransigence and Conflict Resolution Fifty years of experience dealing with a variety of bureaucracies have led me to conclude that no bureaucracy ever changes voluntarily. When a small shift does occasionally...
Why Is Foreign Policy So Hard?
Difficulties of Diplomacy and Policymaking Despite the rhetoric of political leaders, foreign-policy making seems to be defined less by compromise than by the abrogation of failure. We shake our heads in frustration as despite our best efforts,...
Why the "Foreign" Matters in Foreign Affairs
Cultural Understanding in Policy Processes In questions of theory and practice alike, students of foreign policy have been engaged and mystified by the subject of culture. The term "foreign" itself explicitly calls attention to that which is exotic...