Harvard International Review

This journal provides commentary, news and analysis of global developments in politics, economics, public policy, science and culture.

Articles from Vol. 26, No. 4, Winter

Achieving International Justice: Human Rights Promotion and the Law
Do universal human rights exist, and if so is it necessary to justify them philosophically? [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] There are, without a doubt, universal human rights. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights represents a broad consensus...
Angola's Agony: Tenuous Times Post-Civil War
More than two years after the end of decades of armed conflict in Angola, many citizens--particularly in rural areas--in this oil-rich country are still waiting to reap the benefits of peace. During the conflict, Angola's largest opposition group,...
Averting Nuclear Catastrophe: Contemplating Extreme Responses to US Vulnerability
The United States dominates the international scene like no other state. Indeed, the modern state system has never seen a comparable global power. Despite its enormous economic, political, and military strength, however, the United States cannot defend...
Burning Up: Energy Usage and the Environment
The use of energy by humankind has been an essential element in both the development of organized society and in the supply of food and physical comfort. Energy requirements were relatively modest for most of human existance, generally limited to the...
Business as Usual: The Saudi-US Relationship
The Saudi-US relationship has consistently been described as an exchange of oil for security. However, since 1944, when US President Franklin Roosevelt and King Abdel Aziz met in Egypt, Saudi Arabia has used more US goods, management systems, technology,...
Clash of Class: Populism in Chavez's Venezuela
In August 2004, President Hugo Chavez won a recall referendum allowing him to retain the presidency of Venezuela, an office he has held since 1998. Ironically, however, his popularity has caused tremendous conflict in Venezuela, and Chavez finds himself...
Forced to Fuel: Iran's Nuclear Energy Program
On February 9, 2003, Iranian President Mohammad Khatami announced Iran's program for producing enriched uranium, the fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, experts and inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency...
Fueling Concern: The Role of Oil in Venezuela
Since the 1921 discovery of the Barroso No. 2 well, Venezuela and oil have become inextricably linked. The reaction of diverse population groups to the discovery of the well proved to be a harbinger of the intricate social dynamics that the oil industry...
In Name Only: Norway's Ceded Sovereignty
With the admission of ten additional countries to the European Union in May 2004, the consequences of being a non-member European state are growing. Though Norway has rejected referendums that propose EU entry several times, Norwegians are becoming...
No Sweat (Shop): Labor Reforms in Cambodia
Some US politicians have called for trade agreements to be linked to labor and environmental standards. Few realize, however, that one such trade deal already exists. In January 1999, Cambodia and the United States signed an agreement that allowed...
On the Edge: Threats to Jordanian Reform
On many levels, Jordan continues to stand among Arab-Muslim countries as the best hope for facilitating peace and genuine democratic reform in the Middle East. Ten years ago, Jordan's King Hussein and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed a landmark...
Phenomena of Faith: Religious Dimensions of Conflicts and Peace
Is religious conflict on the rise, or are we just beginning to focus on a phenomenon that has been going on for a long time? [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] I think the latter, but let us consider ethnopolitical conflict in general, without reference...
Powering the Globe
It is one of the main questions confronting experts in both government and academia: "What drives foreign policy?" Theorists provide many answers--geopolitical concerns, security issues, domestic public opinion, or institutional constraints. But a...
Protecting Patents
In a recent article, ("Does One Size Fit All?: The International Patent Regime," Summer 2004) Graham Dutfield criticized international patent standard-setting efforts, contending that developing countries should be free to design individualized patent...
Red Blues: Strife in Post-Soviet Georgia
Toward the end of November 2003, Georgians rejoiced at the revolution that removed president and semi-despot, Eduard Shevardnadze, from power. Periodicals and news networks around the world lauded this seemingly bloodless transfer of power, calling...
Remotely Russian
Nikolai Zlobin's article ("Together But Separate: Russia and Europe in the New Century," Fall 2004) asks how Russia's relationship with Europe is likely to change in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse. Historically, geopolitics has been the most...
Rewriting the Textbooks: Education Policy in Post-Hussein Iraq
British Liberal Henry Peter Brougham said in the 19th century, "Education makes a people easy to lead, but difficult to drive; easy to govern but impossible to enslave." For decades, Saddam Hussein perverted this philosophy and exploited education...
Rising Sun: Technology Transfer in China
China's rapid economic growth has monopolized the news in recent months. The annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates of around ten percent that were common in the 1990s have continued in the early years of the 21st century. China's investments...
Thanks, but No Thanks: The Other Face of International Humanitarian Aid
Part of every well-intentioned dollar you send to a war-torn, underdeveloped country is funding the sport utility vehicle of a recent college graduate and the rest is perpetuating an ethnic war that is at the source of the famine you want to help fight....
The Hidden Conflict: False Optimism and Silent Strategy in Kashmir
In the aftermath of the October 2004 meeting between Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf at the United Nations, the longest unresolved conflict on the agenda of the UN Security Council seems primed to take...
The Nuclear Conundrum: Reconciling Nuclear Energy and Nonproliferation
More than a half-century into the nuclear age, the world continues to grapple with the challenge of peacefully developing nuclear energy while preventing states from using their nuclear knowledge, technology, and assets to acquire nuclear weapons....
The Perfect Storm: OPEC and the World Oil Market
Oil continues to be the world's most important fuel, contributing 39 percent of the global energy supply. It will remain the leading fuel in the near future, driven primarily by demand from the rapidly growing transportation sector. Crude oil prices...
Troubling Travels: Funding Myanmar's Junta
Ever since General Ne Win's coup d'etat in 1962, Myanmar's military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), has maintained an iron-fisted political doctrine while sending mixed signals about its economic agenda. Although initially...
US Economic Power: Waxing or Waning?
Since the invasion of Iraq, anti-Americanism in Europe has spilled over from foreign policy seminars into economic debates. Both advanced and emerging market countries are challenging the US economic model as the paradigm to be emulated. This critical...