Harvard International Review

This journal provides commentary, news and analysis of global developments in politics, economics, public policy, science and culture.

Articles from Vol. 31, No. 3, Fall

Africa's Displaced Peoples: State-Building Realpolitik and Stunted Globalization
As we move into the second decade of the twenty-first century, the extent of the refugee crisis in Africa has become more circumscribed, while the scope of internal displacement has grown. According to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNCHR) in 2007,...
An African Solution Solving the Crisis of Failed States: George B.N. Ayittey Is a Distinguished Economist at American University and President of the Free Africa Foundation. He Is the Author of Africa Unchained (Palgrave/MacMillan, 2005) and Indigenous African Institutions (Transnational Publishers, 2006)
What United States President Barack Obama said in his July 2009 speech in Accra, Ghana, while remarkably accurate, was not new. In fact, his message confirms what some of us have been saying for decades, best summarized in his words as: "Africa's future...
A Universal Mandate to Protect: The Challenges of Refugee Protection
The global presence of refugees is one of the hallmarks of the modern era. On every continent people are being forced from their homes, communities, and countries of origin because of persecution or violence. During the 1990s in the aftermath of the...
A Well-Founded Fear: The Social Ecology of 21st Century Refugees
In 1951, the United Nations defined a refugee as a person who "owing to well-founded fear of being-persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality...
Changing of the Guard: The Rise of Radicalism in Iran
Iran's June 2009 presidential election gave the world a rare glimpse into the domestic influence of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), the most powerful branch of the Islamic Republic's military. The election revealed the growing prominence...
Conflict Zones and Crossroads: Understanding Africa's Challenges
What role did Africa play in Western conflicts such as World War I, World War II, and the Cold War? In both World Wars, Sub-Saharan Africa contributed masses of troops to the winning war effort. For example, in World War I, African soldiers and...
Europe's Immigrant Problem: Integrating Minority Populations
As the enlargement of the European Union (EU) increases the scope and population of Europe, social integration has been pushed to the forefront of political debate. Over the past decade, incidents such as the murder of Theo van Gogh by Mohammed Bouyeri...
Gallup Presents ... A Heated Debate Global Attitudes toward Climate Change
Twelve years ago, the international community took a step toward a global emission reduction regime--the Kyoto protocol. Governments are poised to take another step at climate talks in December in Copenhagen, where some observers cautiously hope delegates...
Guinea Foul: Challenging Camara's Coup
On September 26, 2009 over 20,000 people crowded the streets in Labe, Guinea to protest the visit of Moussa Dadis Camara, screaming "No to Khaki Power!" For Camara, who currently heads the West African nation's junta government, it was the first trip...
Hostile Relations India's Pakistan Dilemma: Shivshankar Menon Was India's Foreign Secretary until July 31,2009. He Previously Served as India's High Commissions and Diplomat to China and Israel
The neuralgic reactions in both India and Pakistan to the Sharm Al Sheikh joint statement of July 16, 2009 are a measure of the sensitivity and irrationality that dog attempts to rework India-Pakistan relations, and of how fraught these relations are....
How the West Was Lost: China's Xinjiang Policy
In Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang province in western China, riots between Uyghur minorities and their Han majority neighbors claimed 197 lives and injured thousands in July 2009, reprising China's periodic problems with ethnic minorities living in...
Labour Shortage: Leadership in Britain's Ruling Party
Bill Clinton may have claimed the title of "comeback kid" as his own, but in the art of comebacks, the former US President is no match for Peter Mandelson, Britain's new First Secretary of State. In his three decades in public life, Lord Mandelson...
Letter from the Editors
In 1951, a post-World War II United Nations bent on protecting human rights adopted the landmark Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. The document defined a refugee as an individual who, "owing to a well-founded fear of persecution ... is...
Maintaining Vitality in Exile: The Tibetan Refugees in South Asia
In the December 20, 2001 issue of The Economist, the magazine carried an article, "Home Thoughts From Abroad: Governments in Exile," an examination of the two dozen or so governments-in-exile that operate around the world. The article says that the...
Micromanagement: Fixing Microfinance in Argentina
Despite Argentina's legacy of welfare payments to support the needy, 23.4 percent of the country's population remains below the poverty line. Microfinance, which provides credit solutions for the very poor, has the potential to improve the situation...
On Target: The Financial Fight against Terrorist Organizations
Targeting Terrorist Financing: International Cooperation and New Regimes is by Araninda Acharya (Routledge, 2009). In the immediate aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attacks, the US government moved swiftly in an attempt to curtail terror...
Repatriating the Revolution Democracy in Practice in the European Union: Daniel Hannan Is a Conservation Member of the European Parliament for South East England and Has Served since 1999. He Is Also a Writer and Journalist and Has Written Eight Books on European Policy Including the Plan Twelve Months to Renew Britain
Yet again, turnout at European elections has reached a record low. Of those Europeans who had taken the trouble to register to vote before the June 2009 elections to the European Parliament, no fewer than 57 percent declined to cast their ballots on...
Spread Too Thin? the UNHCR and the New Geopolitics of Refugees
The international protection of refugees started after World War I with the appointment of the High Commissioner for Refugees by the League of Nations, but the tradition of protecting the stranger in need is found far earlier in most world cultures....
Stanford Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Presents ... Promoting Clean Development Competing Market Mechanisms Post-2012
According to climate scientists, averting the worst consequences of climate change requires that the increase in global temperature should be limited to 2[degrees]C (or 3.6[degrees]F). To achieve that objective, global emissions of green house gases...
The Politics of an Apology: Japan and Resolving the "Comfort Women" Issue
Last August, Australia's Senate considered a motion calling for Japan's full acceptance and adequate compensation for "comfort women" forced into sexual slavery during World War II (WWII). While having failed at vote, the resolution would have added...
The Politics of Neighbors: The EU's Role in the Future of Eastern Europe
Launched in Prague amid much fanfare in May 2009, the Eastern Partnership represents yet another attempt by the European Union to push for democracy and stability in the often tumultuous eastern borderland region. Targeting six countries in Eastern...