Harvard International Review

This journal provides commentary, news and analysis of global developments in politics, economics, public policy, science and culture.

Articles from Vol. 31, No. 2, Summer

Africa's Organic Peasantry: Beyond Romanticism
In the Western imagination Africa now stands for the antithesis of our own modern economy: its authenticity contrasting with our own contrivance. More specifically, the dominant image of Africa is that of the peasant farmer. In contrast to the large,...
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Agriculture as Energy? the Wisdom of Biofuels
In the fall of 2006, the world awakened to the astonishing realization that agriculture was undergoing a major structural change. The US farm price of corn, having averaged US$2.00 per bushel in the 2005-2006 crop year, soared in the middle of the...
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A Missed Chance? Obama on Democracy in Egypt
In his typically cautious fashion, US President Barack Obama gave a speech in Cairo in June that touched on Islamic extremism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, nuclear weapons, and human rights, without wading into any policy detail. It was public...
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Back in Business: Sierra Leone's President and CEO
From 1991 to 2002, civil war devastated the Western African nation of Sierra Leone. The conflict pitted the government against the Liberian-aided Revolutionary United Front (RUF). The RUF established a base of economic power through control of the...
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Beyond Keynesianism the Necessity of a Globally Coordinated Solution: Justin Yifu Lin Is Senior Vice President and Chief Economist of the World Bank. Prior to Holding These Positions, He Directed the China Center for Economic Research at Peking University. He Is the Bank's First Chief Economist to Hail from a Developing Country
It is now widely acknowledged that the world economy is going through a global recession, the likes of which we have not seen in eight decades, and the inability to rely on export stimulus anywhere also makes it evident that no single country or group...
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Black, Blanc, Beur: France Debates Counting Its Minorities
Ethnicity, according to one British commentator, is to the French what sex was to the Victorians. It is Yazid Sabeg's job to change all that. President Nicolas Sarkozy appointed the Algerian-born business leader as France's diversity czar last December,...
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China and the Internet: An Uphill Fight for Freedom
ANONYMOUS Although China is home to the largest population of internet users in the world and has witnessed increasing creativity and "pushback" from its netizens, the country's internet environment remains one of the most controlled in the world....
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Corn Ethanol as Energy: The Case against US Production Subsidies
Corn grain is one of the major foods of the world. Grains in general provide about 80 percent of the world food calories. Today there is a per capita shortage of grains and other foods, exacerbating the serious global malnourishment problem. The World...
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Failing States
William Rosenau ("Counterinsurgency: Lessons from Iraq and Afghanistan," Spring 2009) raises several important points. It is difficult not to agree with most of them. But in regard to his "more fundamental" criticism, this is not the case. Rosenau...
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Finding Multilateral Solutions Global Cooperation in Nuclear Non-Proliferation: Ruud Lubbers Is Minister of State of the Netherlands. He Formerly Served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from 2001 to 2005 and as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1982 to 1994
A multipolar world now exists, but it took 20 years after the end of the Cold War for the concept of multipolarity to develop. In 1989, then US President George H.W. Bush spoke about a promising "new global order" and US political economist Francis...
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Foreign "Invaders": Genetically Modified Crops and Plant Diversity
My struggle with weeds over the years has made me aware of the damage they can inflict in gardens, farms, and native ecosystems. I have learned to be vigilant and untrusting of even the smallest, innocent-looking weed seedling and yank it out upon...
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Global Crisis in the Balkans: Serbia's Fiscal Plans and Future EU Membership
How has the global financial crisis impacted Serbia in comparison to its Balkan neighbors and to other European states? Was the impact more or less severe, and why? [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Balkan countries have experienced this crisis in a manner...
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Hard Decisions on Soft Power Opportunities and Difficulties for Chinese Soft Power: Joseph S. Nye Jr. Is the University Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard, and Wang Jisi Is Dean of Peking University School of International Studies. This Article Is a Shorter Version of Their Chapter in Power and Restraint Edited by Richard Rosecrance and Gu Guoliang
Broadly defined, power is the ability to affect others to obtain the outcomes one wants. One can affect other individuals' behavior in three main ways: by threatening coercion ("sticks"), by offering inducements or payments ("carrots"), and by by making...
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Letter from the Editors
In a modernizing, increasingly industrial world, one age-old challenge still haunts us: how to produce enough food for an expanding population. Today, however, the most pressing concerns are not Malthusian, reflecting absolute shortfalls in food production,...
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Neoliberalism and Its Discontents: Impact of Health Reforms in Chile
Chile has often been regarded as a model for the rest of Latin America. With the highest human development index in Latin America according to the United Nations Development Program, Chile has emerged from the Pinochet years as a modern and stable...
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Payments for Sustainability: A Case Study on Subsistence Farming in Ecuador
A fairly recent innovation in environmental policy--and one that is favored by a number of economists--payments for environmental services (PES) are beginning to be implemented in order to protect water sources in Latin America. In a typical scheme,...
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Recharging Bolivia: Evo Morales' Lithium Dilemma
One of the poorest nations in Latin America, Bolivia saw a record-high 6 percent economic growth in 2008. Despite this improvement, the citizens of the landlocked country have yet to reap the benefits. The nation continues to lack basics like adequate...
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Running on Empty Mongolia's Economic Crash
A financial crisis that began with a collapse in the American housing market has enveloped a country where half the people live in tents. Facing a budget shortfall and rising inflation, Mongolia has taken on a series of direct loans from other countries,...
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Technology and Education: The Power of the Personal Computer
In most cases, the assumption that wealthy countries tend to have better education systems than poorer countries is correct. However, the association between national wealth and educational achievement scores is far from perfect. The United States,...
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Testing the NATO Alliance: Afghanistan and the Future of Cooperation
At the heart of the alliance is article five of the North Atlantic Treaty: if one NATO member is attacked, all will respond. Now, as US President Obama reminded us in Strasbourg, NATO "remains the strongest alliance that the world has ever known."...
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The Anti-Slavery Crusade
In "Winning the Fight" (Spring 2009), Kevin Bales, one of the leading observers on human trafficking, addresses the much-needed grand strategy for abolishing slavery today. He aptly emphasizes both the debt used by traffickers to ensnare and subjugate...
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The Right to Food: Fighting for Adequate Food in a Global Crisis
Nine hundred seventy-five million people are hungry in the world today, up from 852 million in 2003-2005, and 820 million in 1996. Previous policies have failed. The world food crisis, characterized by sudden increases of prices of agricultural commodities...
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Unlikely Bedfellows? Confucius, the CCP, and the Resurgence of Guoxue
Confucius has become China's biggest celebrity. Enjoying an unprecedented revival of interest from China's population, he has also become the country's cultural ambassador to the world: his words adorned the start of the 2008 Beijing Olympics' opening...
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