Harvard International Review

This journal provides commentary, news and analysis of global developments in politics, economics, public policy, science and culture.

Articles from Vol. 34, No. 4, Spring

Africa's New Bully: What Al Qaeda Movements Mean for Africa's Security
Timbuktu is often referred to as "The City of 333 Saints," a moniker deserved for a city where historical households can be found on almost every street and which is home to over 100,000 ancient manuscripts. In the last decade, however, much of that...
A Shifting Playing Field: The UK's Engagement in a Globalizing World
During his week-long visit at Harvard University in October of 2012, Douglas Alexander agreed to talk with the Harvard International Review about the European fiscal crisis, the state of the British economy, the job of opposition party leader David...
Birth of a Pacific World Order: America's First Pacific President and Sino-US Relations
"For a nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is a nation that is afraid of its people." President John F. Kennedy [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Two Visions, One World In his re-election night speech...
Brazil in Africa: Seeking International Status, Not Resources
In the shadow of China's and India's inroads into the African continent, South America's emerging power, Brazil, has been increasing its presence in Africa. However, its role in Africa has remained relatively unnoticed by international media and academia...
Casting Votes on the Internet: Switzerland and the Future of Elections
The Internet has had a profound impact on the way contemporary democracies work. Neither processes, such as electoral campaigns, nor actors, such as candidates, political parties or movements, are immune to the myriad challenges and opportunities offered...
Commercializing Crisis: Argo Employs Familiar Hollywood Tropes
Critics and audiences will agree: Ben Affleck has done it again. With its numerous .0 award nominations and victories, Argo will surely join Gone Baby Gone and The Town as an Affleck-directed box-office success, and rightfully so. In Argo (based on...
Democracy: Europe's Forgotten Ideal
Seventeen months after the guns fell silent in Berlin, Winston Churchill proposed a "United States of Europe" to promote peace and well-being. The European people, devastated by war, embraced the concept of continental integration, but decades later,...
Do Party Systems Matter: Governance through Modern Political Parties
Do party systems matter? Funding agencies think so. In fact, they spend millions of dollars annually to create and cultivate democratic party systems in developing countries. They want competitive party systems with stable factions that avoid fragmentation....
Egyptian Youth Make History: Forging a Revolutionary Identity amid Brutality
Thirty years of research have identified common facets of social movements (i.e., grievances, resources, ideology, and opportunity) that challenge and change government systems. An example was the 1989 demise of the Soviet socialist bloc in Eastern...
El Salvador Can Shine Again: A Microcosm of Latin American Transformations
The success of the Salvadoran Peace Accords of 1992 surprised the world. What was the key to crafting a lasting peace? [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] I think the crucial factor in the Peace Accords was also the most controversial one. It refers to the...
Farewell to Bans: Sanctions Take Their Toll
It has been a difficult few months in Iranian politics. Only days after being refused access by the Iranian judiciary to an imprisoned press aide, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad released a public letter accusing Ayatollah Sadegh Larijani, head of the...
Fighting for Freedom: Promoting Democracy the American Way
The relationship between US foreign policy and the promotion of democracy has never been simple. That great champion of democracy, Woodrow Wilson, never thought that Asians or Africans were ready for it after World War I. Franklin D. Roosevelt more...
Future of Campaign Finance: The Multi-Billion Dollar Enterprise
With a price tag of six billion dollars, the recent United States election season set a record for the most expensive election of all times, and re-launched the global debate on campaign finance. The complex relationship between money and democracy...
Island Warfare: World War II Isn't Quite over Yet
It may come as a surprise to hear that, officially, World War II has not yet ended between Japan and the Soviet Union's successor state, the Russian Federation. The main sticking point that has prevented a permanent peace treaty from being signed is...
Letter from the Editors
Democracy is at once old and new. From the legacy of ancient Athens to the promise of the Arab Awakening, government of the people, by the people, for the people holds enduring allure. In eras when rule by the richest or the strongest seemed certain...
Limelight on Mobile Learning: Integrating Education and Innovation
Mobile apps and tablets have assumed a prominent position in the landscape of technology use in education and training, as anticipated by the EDUCAUSE 2012 Horizon Report. With mobile phone subscriptions totalling around six billion, and predictions...
Malala versus Extremism: Not Taliban, but Talibanization
In October 2012, Malala Yousafzai was shot by the Taliban in Pakistan's northwestern town of Swat when she was returning home from school in a van. Why did the Taliban perceive a schoolgirl as a grave threat to its agenda of radicalizing youth? Armed...
Multi-Stakeholderism: The Internet Governance Challenge to Democracy
On December 5, 2012, the US Congress unanimously passed a resolution with an extraordinary 397-0 vote calling for US opposition to government control of the Internet and the preservation of a multi-stakeholder model of Internet governance. The bipartisan...
Not the Iraq You Know: But the Iraq That Could Be
Cranes pierce the blue sky, Western businessmen walk the streets, and capable militiamen and police officers patrol daily. It might be Dubai, if Dubai were landlocked, a few thousand kilometers northwest, and still possessed oil--but this is not the...
Revisiting the Link: Politicizing Religion in Democratizing Countries
Conflict about the role of religion in state affairs is acute in the Middle East, Europe, and Africa. Are religious cleavages more prone to violent conflict than other cleavages? What is the relationship between religion and political violence? These...
The End of HIV? the Cure Demands Social Change
Although HIV statistics remain painfully high, for the first time scientists have begun to discuss the prospect of an AIDS-free generation. At the 19th International AIDS conference in Washington, DC, 25,000 activists, scientists, policymakers, and...
Trials of Timbuktu: How Mali Can Combat Terrorism
The Western world sees Timbuktu as the archetypal fantasy land--somewhere mysterious and exotic. Recent events in this very real city in Mali, though, demand the close attention of the outside world. Jihadism, separatism, ethnic strife, and loose weapons...
Violence: The Spectre of 2012
As we progress through 2013, the casualties of the past year continue to pile up. The 23-year-old gang-rape victim from Delhi just passed away, and a public official is a victim of the violence-protesting riots. The historic Israel-Palestine conflict...
Watch out for the Lion Cubs: An Unexpected Triumph in Africa
It is no longer a secret--Africa is finally on the rise. For many decades, we have been used to associating the continent with the Six D's of horror: decay, disaster, drought, disease, despotism, and despair. They have not disappeared over night, but...