Eire-Ireland: a Journal of Irish Studies

Eire-Ireland: a Journal of Irish Studies is a magazine specializing in Social Science topics.

Articles

Vol. 39, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer

Guest Editor's Introduction
Introduction IN ULSTER AS IT IS, Thomas MacKnight, editor of the Northern Whig, described late nineteenth-century Ulster in the following terms: "The plain, the undeniable truth is that there are two antagonistic populations, two different nations...
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Standish James O'Grady: Between Imperial Romance and Irish Revival *
STANDISH JAMES O'GRADY is one of the most enigmatic and influential figures of late-nineteenth-century Irish cultural history. He praised aristocratic values and denounced the aristocracy; Lady Gregory called him a "Fenian Unionist," and Pearse acknowledged...
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An Open National Identity: Rutherford Mayne, Gerald MacNamara, and the Plays of the Ulster Literary Theatre *
During the early decades of the twentieth century, while Ireland's Abbey Theatre tried hard to create a unified image of nationhood in the figure of a West-of-Ireland peasant, a little theatre company in the North of Ireland addressed issues of national...
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Richard Moynan: Irish Artist and Unionist Propagandist *
IT IS A WELL-ESTABLISHED FACT that history is written by the victors, but it is less widely acknowledged that history is also painted by the victors. In Inventing Ireland, Declan Kiberd argues that the bloody Irish revolution of 1916-23 was preceded...
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Sitting on "The Outer Skin": Somerville and Ross's through Connemara in a Governess Cart as a Coded Stratum of Linguistic/feminist "Union" Ideals
INTRODUCTION In her study of the West of Ireland and Irish identity, Catherine Nash notes the increasing pervasiveness of "the West" in popular travel accounts of Ireland throughout the boom years of the professional tourist industry during the...
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Dead Men Talking: Frank McGuinness's Observe the Sons of Ulster Marching towards the Somme
In a tiny stone church On the desolate headland A lost tribe is singing "Abide With Me." (1) PYPER: Again. As always, again. Why does this persist? What more have we to tell each other? I remember nothing today. Absolutely nothing. (Silence.) (2)...
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The Limits of "New Unionism": David Trimble and the Ulster Unionist Party *
ACADEMIC DISCUSSION of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is still thin on the ground. Since John F. Harbinson's pioneering history appeared in 1973, (1) there has been only one serious academic study of the party. (2) The academic writing that has been...
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Fantasy Politics? Restructuring Unionism after the Good Friday Agreement
The current arrangements are not a settlement, but a process of concessions--concessions that have turned conventional wisdom on its head. Government policy has been to reward those who do wrong whilst punishing those who want to be democratic. What...
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Unionist Identity, External Perceptions of Northern Ireland, and the Problem of Unionist Legitimacy *
A common view in journalistic and academic commentary is that the recent internationalization of the Northern Ireland conflict and peace process has had a positive impact. (1) This perspective, however widely shared, carries subtly tendentious implications....
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Orangeism in Scotland: Unionism, Politics, Identity, and Football
For almost two hundred years the Orange Institution has been a feature of the religious, social, and cultural life of West Central Scotland. Although a matter of some contention, the Order has developed a powerful political meaning in Scotland, affecting...
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Belfast's First Bomb, 28 February 1816: Class Conflict and the Origins of Ulster Unionist Hegemony
Irish immigrant correspondence has great scholarly value. It provides insight, of course, into the processes of Irish migration and adaptation, but occasionally it can also illuminate contemporary events, developments, or concerns that historians have...
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Vol. 38, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter

Editors' Introduction
This issue suggests the many directions of current scholarship in Irish Studies: work characterized by new archival research, revisionist unsettlings of earlier assumptions, and innovative interdisciplinary initiatives. We begin with four essays illustrating...
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The Decline and Rebirth of "Folk Memory": Remembering "The Year of the French" in the Late Twentieth Century *
THE study of folklore has been construed as the documentation of a vanishing subject. This "poetics of disappearance," (1) which echoes the classic studies in social anthropology, perpetuates a nebulous concept of the final hour of "authentic" oral...
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Now You Don't See It, Now You Do: Situating the Irish in the Material Culture of Grosse Ile
Material culture is culture made material; it is the inner wit at work in the world. Beginning necessarily with things, but not ending with them, the study of material culture uses objects to approach human thought and action. (Glassie, Material...
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Legless in London: Padraic O Conaire and Eamon a Burc (1)
PADRAIC O Conaire's short novel, Deoraiocht [Exile] (1910), written in London and published when he was twenty-eight, is the earliest example of modernist fiction in Irish. (2) Its narrator, Micil O Maolain, has been hit by a car shortly after arriving...
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The Cabinet of Irish Literature: A Historical Perspective on Irish Anthologies *
I. THE "CULTURE OF THE EXCERPT" AMONG the flurry of reviews and commentaries that followed the publication of volumes I to III of the Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing in 1991, those of most enduring interest moved beyond the heat of the moment...
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John Mitchel and the Rejection of the Nineteenth Century
IN response to a friend who accused him of not believing in the future of humanity, the Young Irelander John Mitchel retorted that, on the contrary, he did believe that humanity had a future but that "its future will be very much like its past: that...
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The Fenians in Montreal, 1862-68: Invasion, Intrigue, and Assassination (1)
DURING the winter of 1865-66 reports reached the Canadian government that the Fenians--the physical-force Irish republican revolutionaries with their headquarters in New York--were planning to invade British North America. After a stormy convention...
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Landlord Responses to the Irish Land War, 1879-87
In his magisterial study, Landlords and Tenants in Mid-Victorian Ireland, William Vaughan redresses the imbalance of John Pomfret's pioneering work, The Struggle for Land in Ireland, 1800-1923 (Princeton, 1930), that depicted the Irish landlords as...
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D.P. Moran and the Leader: Writing an Irish Ireland through Partition *
FOR readers of Irish literature D.P. Moran (1869-1936) is best remembered as a pugnacious journalist who, at the turn of the twentieth century, coined an increasingly exclusivist form of cultural politics under the rubric "Irish Ireland." However,...
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Afterimage of the Revolution: Kevin O'Higgins and the Irish Revolution (1)
KEVIN O'Higgins once famously referred to himself as one of "the most conservative-minded revolutionaries that ever put through a successful revolution." (2) This comment, however revealing, seems to have obscured later historical views of O'Higgins,...
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Wives, Mothers, and Citizens: The Treatment of Women in the 1935 Nationality and Citizenship Act
"CLEARLY, male Irish political leaders saw women only in domestic terms. Women were mothers. Women were wives. Women minded the hearth and home." (1) Most historians would accept this evaluation of the position of women in the early years of the Irish...
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Vol. 38, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer

Editors' Introduction: Language and Identity in Twentieth-Century Ireland
What the eye is to the lover ... language--whatever language history has made his or her mother-tongue--is to the patriot. Through that language, encountered at mother's knee and parted with only at the grave, pasts are restored, fellowships...
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"We Must Learn Where We Live": Language, Identity, and the Colonial Condition in Brian Friel's Translations
MILITARY imperialism is only the first step in establishing imperial hegemony--and an uneconomic one at that. (1) It is costly and, by itself, produces few long-term benefits for the colonizer. Therefore, it must be followed by strategies to persuade...
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An Beal Bocht: Mouthing off at National Identity
"I am an outlaw." Myles-na-Coppaleen, in Dion Boucicault, The Colleen Bawn A MAJOR development in relation to language and identity in the "long" Irish twentieth-century (reaching back to the ferment of the 1880s and 1890s) was the countering...
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The Shock of the Old: Translating Early Irish Poetry into Modern Irish
TWENTIETH-CENTURY readers of English without a knowledge of Old Irish (ca. 600-900 A.D.) or Middle Irish (ca. 900-1200 A.D.) were given reasonably good access to early medieval Irish poetry through the medium of the translation anthology. Through the...
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One Language, Two Tongues: George Fitzmaurice's Use of Hiberno-English Dialect
To grow a second tongue, as harsh a humiliation as twice to be born. Decades later that child's grandchild's speech stumbles over lost syllables of an old order. John Montague, "A Grafted Tongue" GEORGE FITZMAURICE is generally...
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Regional Roots: The BBC and Poetry in Northern Ireland, 1945-55
IN nineteenth-century France the salons of Princess Mathilde, Madame Sabatier, and others served as way stations between authority and art--places where the state and the writer could use each other for power, prestige, and influence. Patrons found...
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Translating Ireland Back into Eire: Gael Linn and Film Making in Irish
Without films in Irish all the work done for the language in the schools, on the radio and by voluntary organisations is doomed to ultimate failure no matter how effectively it is done. Films in Irish, anonymous booklet published in 1950 by the...
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Portrait of a Mythographer: Discourses of Identity in the Work of Father James McDyer
Their attitude [the farmers of Gleann Cholmcille] sprang from their traditionally disenfranchised existence and their isolation from involvement in progress. James McDyer, An Autobiography I inherited my strong sense of nationalism from my own father,...
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Language, Monuments, and the Politics of Memory in Quebec and Ireland
CONTEMPORARY Ireland and Quebec each have centuries of complex language traditions in which Irish, English, and French have jostled in different ways at different periods of time. This article examines two sites--the 1909 Celtic cross at Grosse Ile,...
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Faultlines, Limits, Transgressions: A Theme-Cluster in Late Twentieth-Century Irish Poetry
Lines of history lines of power ... Lines of defiance lines of discord under Walker's arm brisk with guns British soldiers patrol the walls the gates between Ulster Catholic Ulster Protestant.... Lines of loss ...
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Seal Sa Domhan Thoir: Sojourn in the Eastern World
WHEN I was a very small child, farmed out to my Aunt May in the West Kerry Gaeltacht, (1) one of our great joys was listening to wondertales in which the hero had to make a perilous journey to an Domhan Thoir, 'the Eastern World', usually to bring...
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Notes and Queries
The Irish Research Funds were established by the Irish American Cultural Institute in 1988 in the belief that responsible inquiry into the Irish American experience is crucial to providing a lasting record of Ireland and America's history, traditions,...
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"The Watcher," Paul Henry. (Cover Story)
The illustration featured on the cover of this volume is a painting by Paul Henry (1876-1958) called "The Watcher." It was completed during the period in his life when he lived on Achill Island (1910-19) and was first exhibited in Belfast in 1911....
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Fall-Winter

Editors' Introduction
One of the pleasures of editing an interdisciplinary journal is the rediscovery of how disparate contributions can enrich and support each other. This issue of Eire-Ireland begins with Gerry Smyth's examination of relationships between the literary...
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"The Same Sound but with a Different Meaning": Music, Repetition, and Identity in Bernard Mac Laverty's Grace Notes
INTRODUCTION THE last decade of the twentieth century witnessed a proliferation of novels dealing with the subject of music. I shall leave it to some enthusiastic young scholar to undertake a full inventory, but even a cursory browse of the bookshelves...
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Nationalism vs. Liberalism in the Irish Context: From a Postcolonial Past to a Postmodern Future. (1)
"Nationalism is all too often the enemy of democracy." (2) THE re-emergence of ethno-nationalism and the increasing strife seen in many parts of the world arising from nationalistic tensions has quieted those who had predicted the end of history...
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Belated Behan: Brendan Behan and the Cultural Politics of Memory
ON the evening of 30 November 1939, Brendan Behan went to his family home, 70 Kildare Road in Dublin, and packed a suitcase. The suitcase contained chlorate of potash and paraffin wax, which was mixed with gelignite to form an explosive compound....
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"Unbroken Service": Mairead Ni Ghrada'a Career at 2RN, Ireland's First Broadcasting Station, 1927-35
In the Irish Renascence ... women played a vital part, fought, plotted, planned, wrote, painted, acted, alongside their male comrades as equals.... And then, when victory was won, they were thanked and sent back to the domestic hearth....
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The War against the R.I.C., 1919-21
I THE period from Easter Week in 1916 through the end of the Irish Civil War in 1923 continues to attract intense popular and scholarly interest, as reflected in a growing literature of historical treatments, local studies, and personal memoirs....
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"All Creeda and All Classes"? Just Who Made Up the Gaelic League?
SCHOLARS studying the role of the Gaelic revival in recasting modern Irish identity have generally focused their research on three main areas: specific controversies between Irish-Irelanders and Anglo-Irish litterateurs; descriptions of ideological...
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Displaying Ireland: Sydney Owenson and the Politics of Spectacular Antiquarianism. (1)
INTRODUCTION The rise of cultural nationalism in early-nineteenth-century Ireland coincided with a growing interest in Gaelic antiquity and history. Fed by a passion for things Gaelic, the antiquarian movement forged a tight link between Ireland's...
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"Whether the White People like It or Not": Edmund Burke's Speeches on India-Caoineadh's Cainte
I have no party in this business, my dear Miss Palmer, but among a set of people, who have none of your Lilies and Roses in their face; but who are the images of the Great Pattern as well as you and I. I know what I am doing; whether...
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The Tender Mother and the Faithful Wife: Theater, Charity, and Female Subjectivity in Eighteenth-Century Ireland
I. NO PLACE FOR A LADY IN 1745, thanks largely to the efforts of Irish obstetrician Bartholomew Mosse, the first maternity hospital in the British Isles was established in Dublin. A few years later, realizing that the Lying-In Hospital was chronically...
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New Work on Modern Irish Drama and Theater, 1997-2002: An Overview
BOOK-LENGTH CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL STUDIES: Grene, Nicholas. The Politics of Irish Drama: Plays in Context from Boucicault to Friel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Harrington, John P. The Irish Play on the New York Stage, 1874-1966....
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Spring-Summer

In the Shadow of a Grain Elevator: A Portrait of an Irish Neighborhood in Buffalo, New York, in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
THE creation of the immigrant neighborhood is one of the central features of American urbanization since the nineteenth century. Irish settlements in North America since the early 1800s have been analyzed with depictions of various "Irishtowns"...
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Transatlantic Connections and the Sharp Edge of the Great Depression
IRISH transatlantic migration has inspired a number of impressive works in a variety of fields, from the humanities to the social sciences. Yet the vast majority of these accounts end early in the twentieth century, often immediately after World...
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Culture, Commodity, and Cead Mile Failte: U.S. and Irish Tourist Films as a Vision of Ireland
IN 1966, Bord Failte, the Irish Tourist Board, sponsored a documentary intended to update the international profile of "The Emerald Isle." Robert Monks's 1966 Ireland: The New Convention Country would emphasize the modern facilities available to...
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Nationalism, Sentiment, and Economics: Relations between Ireland and Irish America in the Postwar Years
Ireland is a country whose sons and daughters hold her dearly above all, and it is evident in your great country as in others, that their love does not wither because the soil beneath their feet is foreign soil. St Patrick planted more than the...
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New York State's "Great Irish Famine Curriculum": A Report
THE Great Irish Famine Curriculum was founded on initiatives that came from both sides of the narrow street in Albany that separates the chambers of the New York State Legislature from the New York State Education Department. In 1996, the State...
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The New Jersey Famine Curriculum: A Report
The one duty we owe to history is to rewrite it. OSCAR WILDE Is 1995, when I first learned that the New Jersey Holocaust Education Commission had been empowered by the legislature to consider course materials on "a wide range of genocides,"...
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The Irish Famine in American School Curricula
EXAMINING how people remember the past has become for historians as important as analyzing the events on which those collective memories are based. (1) On one level, the trend extends the established method of intradisciplinary self-critique known...
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Contemporary Catholic and Protestant Irish America: Social Identities, Forgiveness, and Attitudes toward the Troubles
The intractability of ethnic conflicts is due in part to their selective focus on the past. Images of the past are used to legitimate the present social order, but such order presupposes shared memories, and as memories diverge, a society's members...
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The Process of Migration and the Reinvention of Self: The Experiences of Returning Irish Emigrants
IRISH migration at the end of the twentieth century encompasses complex and multidimensional processes. Whereas Irish emigrants were once drawn almost exclusively from the agricultural and laborer classes, in the closing decades of the twentieth...
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Fall-Winter

Editors' Introduction
The pressure of Irish nationalism asserts itself as a potent and inevitable reference point for contributors to this issue, even as Ireland enters into its postnationalist era. In some ways the nationalist past is still very much with us. This fall,...
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Anger and Nostalgia: Seamus Heaney and the Ghost of the Father
EVEN BEFORE Seamus Heaney won the Nobel Prize (1995) and then delivered a bestselling translation of Beowulf(1999), he was for Irish, American, and English readers the most admired and lovable of poets. He won that wide affection both by being the...
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"God Save Ireland": Manchester-Martyr Demonstrations in Dublin, 1867-1916
On 23 November 1867 three Irishmen--William Philip Allen, Michael Larkin, and Michael O'Brien--were executed in Manchester, England. They had been found guilty of murdering a policeman during a successful attempt to rescue two Fenian prisoners from...
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"The Gravest Situation of Our Lives": Conservatives, Ulster, and the Home Rule Crisis, 1911-14
ON THE second page of his pithy survey of twentieth-century Britain, Peter Clarke sets out a proposition which might well serve as the theme for this essay. "British history," he says, "has generally dealt with nationalism by ignoring it." (1) In this...
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Divisions within the Irish Government over Land-Distribution Policy, 1940-70
I. INTRODUCTION: THE PROGRAM OF LAND DISTRIBUTION A KEY challenge that the new government of the Irish Free State faced at the time of independence in 1922 was the pressing need to overcome land hunger, unemployment, and poverty in rural areas....
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Remembering Ireland's Architecture of Containment: "Telling" Stories in the Butcher Boy and States of Fear
PATRICK MCCABE's third novel, The Butcher Boy (1992), describes the eventful life of Francie Brady, a traumatized schoolboy in a small town in late 1950s and early 1960s Ireland. (1) Irish society deems Francie mad and resorts to confining his deviant...
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"Ireland Begins in the Home": Women, Irish National Identity, and the Domestic Sphere in the Irish Homestead, 1896-1912
HISTORIANS' neglect of the experiences of Irish women as housewives and mothers at the beginning of the twentieth century has been mirrored by a lack of regard for the position of women in the construction of an Irish national identity. The winter...
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Fetal Ireland: National Bodies and Political Agency
Unionists must ensure that nationalists don't outnumber them. On the other side, what are we confined to--outbreeding them? What are our choices? Either we shoot them or we outbreed them. There's no politics here. It's a numbers game. BERNADETTE...
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"Not Quite Philadelphia, Is It?": An Interview with Eamonn McCann
EAMONN McCann was born in Derry, into the first generation of working-class Catholics to benefit from the Education Act of 1947. McCann's biography is in a sense paradigmatic of the experiences of this generation. Guaranteeing free secondary and third-level...
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Johns Ford's Festive Comedy: Ireland Imagined in the Quiet Man
IN LATE 1951, as his film The Quiet Man was being edited into final form, director John Ford sent a cautiously optimistic telegram to his friend Lord Killanin in Dublin: "The Quiet Man looks better and better. There is a vague possibility that even...
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To Be Loved as a Cupboard: The Yeats Museum in the National Gallery of Ireland. (Cover)
ACCORDING TO George Moore, who had no difficulty in finding something acid to say about any of his Dublin compares, the painter Jack B. Yeats (1871-1957) looked bored in the National Gallery of Ireland. Moore though, while cynical, was astute and observant....
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Spring-Summer

Editor's Introduction
WHEN the editors of Eire-Ireland invited me to edit a special issue on "Irish America," I sensed an opportunity to bring together the very best recent scholarship in the field. This opportunity seemed especially timely in light of the growing importance...
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Patterns of Irish Emigration to America, 1783-1800
THE general features of Irish emigration to colonial America are clear and relatively undisputed: it was largely of Ulster origin; the majority sailed for the Hudson and Delaware valleys; and the departures peaked at three points: 1717-20, 1725-29,...
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"We Will Dirk Every Mother's Son of You": Five Points and the Irish Conquest of New York Politics. *
NEW YORK'S Five Points neighborhood was the most infamous slum in nineteenth-century America. Located just north of City Hall in what is now Chinatown, the district was laid out in the first years of the nineteenth century when city officials decided...
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"The Republic of Letters": Frederick Douglas, Ireland, and the Irish Narratives
ONE of the most notable visitors to Irish shores during the nineteenth century was Frederick Douglass, author, abolitionist, and fugitive slave. (1) Douglass had left the United States following the publication in 1845 of his autobiography, Narrative...
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"White," If "Not Quite": Irish Whiteness in the Nineteenth-Century Irish-American Novel (1)
OVER the past ten years, an increasing number of Americanist historians have suggested that Irish and other European immigrants, in an attempt to secure the prosperity and social position that their white skin had not guaranteed them in Europe, lobbied...
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Dancing between Decks: Choreographies of Transition during Irish Migrations to America *
A DANCE CALLED AMERICA NOSTALGIA is the disease of the homesick, a break with a place and a past and an uneasy fit with the new, a wound that has not healed. In his poem "Neither" (1976), Samuel Beckett wrote about the condition of being caught...
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The Famine's Scars: William Murphy's Ulster and American Odyssey
UNTIL very recently, scholars have neglected the Great Famines impact on the northern Irish province of Ulster and especially its impact on Ulsters Protestant inhabitants. This neglect stemmed in part from historians reading of published census and...
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Miners in Migration: The Case of Nineteenth-Century Irish and Irish-American Copper Miners *
WHAT forces compelled so many in postfamine Ireland to resettle in North America? With an emigration rate more than double that of any other European country, Ireland in this period has received considerable scholarly attention. (1) Yet most studies...
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Young Irish Workers: Class Implications of Men's and Women's Experiences in Gilded Age Chicago
DISCUSSION of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Irish Americans' "class"--their status as well as their behaviors and attitudes concerning class mobility and working-class solidarity--has been vexed and contentious. The topic's inherent complexity,...
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"Come You All Courageously": Irish Women in America Write Home
WHAT we know about immigrants has too often been seen through official lenses. Documentation beyond official sources is scarce because few immigrants conducted their lives with an eye to the biographer. If the world of immigrants is to be recovered,...
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Relinquishing and Reclaiming Independence: Irish Domestic Servants, American Middle-Class Mistresses, and Assimilation, 1850-1920
BETWEEN the onset of the Great Famine and the restriction of immigration in the 1920s, some five million Irish people emigrated to North America. Roughly half of these emigrants were female, and most were young and single. (1) In America's rapidly...
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