Communication Reports

Journal publishing original manuscripts that are short, data/text-based, and related to the broadly defined field of human communication.

Articles

Vol. 20, No. 1-2, April-October

Cultural Terms for Communication: Sources of Intercultural Asynchrony in ESL Settings in Finland
This work presents an analytical approach to assessing intercultural communication through cultural terms for communication. Using data drawn from discussions and interviews with Finnish informants I show how the term asiasta puhumisen [speaking to...
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A Test of the Cognitive Load Hypothesis: Investigating the Impact of Number of Nonverbal Cues Coded and Length of Coding Session on Observer Accuracy
In their meta-analysis investigating the relationship between extraversion and nonverbal behavior La France, Heisel, and Beatty (2004) found a substantial negative correlation between effect size and sample size, which they explained using the cognitive...
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The View from the Ivory Tower: Evaluating Doctoral Programs in Communication
The present study assesses perceptions of (1) the quality of American graduate programs in communication, (2) the qualities that communication scholars deem important in a communication PhD program, and (3) the adequacy of the number of PhD programs...
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Own Party Issue Ownership Emphasis in Presidential Television Spots
This study employs Petrocik's Issue Ownership theory to examine issue ownership emphasis and election outcome. Television spots from 1952 to 2004, every presidential campaign thus far to employ TV advertisements, were computer content analyzed. Democratic...
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Communicative Adaptability Scale: Evaluating Its Use as an 'Other-Report' Measure
This study explored the validity and reliability of the Communicative Adaptability Scale (CAS) (Duran, 1983) as an "other-report" measure of competence. Dyads (N= 432) provided self-other reports of adaptability, self-reports for cognitive flexibility,...
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Intergenerational Communication Beliefs across the Lifespan: Comparative Data from India
This article examines U.S. American and East Indian young adults' perceptions of intergenerational communication. Irrespective of culture, as age of target increased, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative...
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Financial Attitudes and Family Communication about Students' Finances: The Role of Sex Differences
Past research has shown that men value money more than do women and men are less dependent on their parents in financial matters. Men and women also display different patterns of communication, with women engaging in higher levels of self-disclosure....
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The Dark Side of Self-Monitoring: How High Self-Monitors View Their Romantic Relationships
Individuals differ with regard to self-monitoring. Although self-monitoring is positively related to social skills, little research informs how it influences relational processes. Because self-monitoring gives rise to impression management, it may...
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Vol. 19, No. 2, October

Employees' Expressions of Upward Dissent as a Function of Current and Past Work Experiences
This study considered the degree to which employees' current and past work experiences related to employees' expressions of upward dissent. A sample of full-time working adults completed a survey questionnaire that assessed workplace freedom of speech,...
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Reactions to Narrative and Statistical Written Messages Promoting Organ Donation
Students (N = 412) attending a large eastern university evaluated two of three message vignettes (narrative, statistical, actual) on organ donation after reporting their attitudes on the topic. The narrative and statistical vignettes were replicated...
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Cultural Terms for Communication: Sources of Intercultural Asynchrony in ESL Settings in Finland
This work presents an analytical approach to assessing intercultural communication through cultural terms for communication. Using data drawn from discussions and interviews with Finnish informants I show how the term asiasta puhumisen [speaking to...
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Television Viewing in Child Care Programs: A National Survey
Although the amount of television that young children watch at home is well-described, to date no study has examined how much television preschool children watch in day care settings. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the Profile of Child...
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Vol. 19, No. 1, April

The Influence of Instructional Technology Use and Teacher Immediacy on Student Affect for Teacher and Course
This study examined the extent to which teacher nonverbal immediacy moderates the effects of different levels of instructional technology use on students' initial perceptions of affect for the course and instructor. Participants included 549 college...
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Discouraging Messages
Discouraging messages are those that recipients interpret as intended to dishearten. There are two studies in this report. The first study explores estimates of the frequency and perceptions about discouraging messages. The second study is a cluster...
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Testing and Refining a Consequence Model of Jealousy across Relational Contexts and Jealousy Expression Messages
An empirically tested model of an individual's cognitive and emotional consequences to a close relational partner's jealousy expression is described and tested. Specifically, general partner uncertainty, relational uncertainty, negative jealousy-related...
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Forgiveness, Apology, and Communicative Responses to Hurtful Events
Data from 263 individuals who had been hurt by something a dating partner said or did offered support for the interpersonal forgiveness model--forgiveness associated positively with integrative communication and negatively with de-escalation and distributive...
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Background Behavior in Live Debates: The Effects of the Implicit Ad Hominem Fallacy
This study examined the effects of background nonverbal behavior displayed with the purpose of undermining one's opponent in live debates. Students participated as audience members in one of three versions of a live debate. In one version, the nonspeaking...
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Conversational Multitasking in Interactive Written Discourse as a Communication Competence
Conversational multitasking is a distinctive property of synchronous, textual computer-mediated communication (CMC); it can be characterized as a new aspect of communication competence that CMC gives rise to. In this study it is tested how this capacity...
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Vol. 18, No. 1-2, April-October

Comparing Survey and Diary Measures of Internet and Traditional Media Use
Considerable debate exists over the accuracy of self-reported media use measures. This report compares two methodologies for studying Internet and traditional media use: online surveys and diaries. A study was conducted with undergraduate students...
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Degrading Content and Character Sex: Accounting for Men and Women's Differential Reactions to Pornography
This study examines sex differences in arousal to non-violent sexually explicit videos and viewers' perceptions of the character traits that distinguish degrading from non-degrading content. Men and women were exposed to either neutral, erotic or nonviolent...
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Performance Visualization and Behavioral Disruption: A Clarification
Current data suggest that performance visualization is an effective way to reduce communication apprehension (Ayres, Hopf, & Ayres 1997), but performance visualization has not been as effective in reducing behavioral disruption as might be expected...
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Causal Attributions for Collaborative Public Speaking Presentations in College Classes
The present study applied attribution theory in examining how college students interpret success and failure for themselves and their partners in collaborative presentations. Questionnaires were completed by 174 students based on a 2 (positive vs....
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Political Knowledge and Sponsorship in Backlash from Party- and Candidate-Sponsored Attacks
Apparently wary of backlash, candidates are sponsoring fewer negative ads while their party's national committees do more of the dirty work. In this experiment (N = I07), contrary to expectations, candidate evaluations were more positive when participants...
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Evaluations of Supportive Messages Provided by Friends and Romantic Partners: An Attachment Theory Approach
In a questionnaire study of 270 college students we investigated relationships of adult attachment-style dimensions and perceptions of comforting messages received from friends and romantic partners. We found that comfort with closeness, preoccupied...
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Vol. 17, No. 2, Summer

Demand/withdraw Communication between Parents and Adolescents as a Correlate of Relational Satisfaction
The present investigation examined the association between satisfaction in parent-adolescent relationships and demand/withdraw, a pattern of communication in which one person nags or criticizes while the other attempts to avoid the issue. Fifty-seven...
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An Experimental Study of Language Intensity and Response Rate in E Mail Surveys
Intense language, under many conditions, has been shown to substantially increase attitude change. However, the effect of language intensity on actual behavior has rarely been examined and the effectiveness of intense messages has never been tested...
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Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Romantic Jealousy Expressions
This study focused on the emotional and behavioral responses experienced and expressed by targets of jealousy expressions, participants (N=226) reported their perceived emotion intensity and likelihood that they would respond with specific messages...
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The Relationships among Instructors' Antisocial Behavior Alteration Techniques and Student Resistance
This study examined the relationships between instructors' use of antisocial behavior alteration techniques (BATs) and students' use of teacher-owned resistance strategies. College students (N = 190) completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions...
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Testing a Workplace Experience Explanation of Displaced Dissent
When employees express displaced dissent their organizations do not hear and as a result forfeit important critical feedback. The purpose of this study was to assess the conditions in which employees tend to favor expressing displaced dissent. To that...
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Communication Differences between Male and Female Team Sport Athletes
Research has been equivocal with respect to sex differences in communication. Although the bulk of the literature suggests that any differences are small to moderate, several characteristics of sport teams suggest that male and female athletes may...
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The Relationship between Perceived Instructor Credibility and College Student In-Class and Out-of-Class Communication
This study explored the relationship between perceived instructor credibility (i.e., competence, character, caring) and student in-class (i.e., willingness to talk) and out of class communication. Participants were 158 college students enrolled in...
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Vol. 17, No. 1, Winter

A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Social Skills and Sexual Offenders
A meta-analysis examined eleven studies examining the relationship between social skills (communication competence) and whether the person was a sexual offender (rapist, molester, incest offender, pedophile, exhibitionist). After the removal of one...
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A Comparison of Interaction Rules and Interaction Frequency in Relationship to Marital Quality
The purpose of this study is to compare the contributing role of two aspects of social interaction to the quality of marital relationships: the frequency of casual interaction between marital partners versus the quality of social interaction as exhibited...
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"Is There Something I Should Know?": Topic Avoidant Responses in Parent-Adolescent Communication
This exploratory study examined late-adolescents' responses to parents' direct requests for information about a topic that the adolescent was trying to avoid. Open-ended questions from 119 participants were analyzed using a grounded theory approach....
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Keeping the Score: The Hegemonic Everyday Practices in Golf
Because of the taken-for-granted, common sense position, it is often difficult to examine what is naturalized in our culture. Semiotic analysis is one method in which scholars may apply to common everyday practices revealing subtleties about what our...
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Anxiety Patterns in Employment Interviews
Research in public speaking arousal patterns can be used as a framework for understanding the anxiety produced in an employment interview setting. Because heightened levels of anxiety are linked to negative behavioral outcomes, identifying specific...
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Vol. 16, No. 2, Summer

Accommodation and Nonaccommodation across the Lifespan: Perspectives from Thailand, Japan, and the United States of America
This study investigates perceptions of intra- and intergenerational communication among young adults in Thailand. Japan, and the U.S.A. interactions with older adults were reported to be generally more problematic than those with other younger people....
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"Parent Teams" and the Everyday Interactions of Co-Parenting in Stepfamilies
Family scholars have yet to explore substantially the day-to-day interactions of stepfamily systems. Our focus was on the everyday interactions of parent teams, adults who are coparenting within different stepfamily households, describing the characteristics...
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Attachment Style Differences in Relational Maintenance and Conflict Behaviors: Friends' Perceptions
This study explores how attachment style affects individuals' relationship maintenance behaviors and conflict management behaviors as evaluated by their close friend. Findings revealed that friends reported greater relationship satisfaction, greater...
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Worry as a Function of Public Speaking State Anxiety Type
Although most speakers become progressively more comfortable while presenting public speeches, a process called habituation, many others experience increased psychological discomfort, usually during the first moments of their presentations. Previous...
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The Effect of Smiling on Helping Behavior: Smiling and Good Samaritan Behavior
Research has shown that a person receives more help when smiling. Nevertheless, this effect of smiling was only tested when the smiler was requesting help. An experiment was completed in which 8 confederates (4 young men and 4 young women) tested 800...
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Vol. 16, No. 1, Winter

Future Selves and Others: A Lifespan and Cross-Cultural Perspective
Recent research in lifespan development has shown that young adults are able to make projections as to their anticipated status later in life. The current investigation invited undergraduates to assess themselves and peers now, and at the ages of 65...
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The Effects of Participation on the Ability to Judge Deceit
The principle of interactivity holds that communication processes and outcomes vary as a function of whether the communication context is interactive or not. When deception occurs in conversation, communicators who are active participants should be...
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Observers' Perceptions of an Interpersonal Dispute as a Function of Mode of Presentation
Communication researchers have employed a number of modes for presenting stimuli to subjects including written accounts, audio and videotapes, and live performances. The use of these different modes could be potentially problematic if the mode of presentation...
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Using Images to Enhance the Impact of Visualization
Research indicates that visualization has been an effective way to reduce communication apprehension (e.g., Ayres, Hopf, & Ayres, 1997). In general, this line of investigation has relied on text-based material to help people create appropriate...
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Are the Liberal Good in Hollywood? Characteristics of Political Figures in Popular Films from 1945 to 1998
Previous research (Prindle & Endersby, 1995) indicated that the leaders of Hollywood are far more liberal than the average American. The question that remained to be answered was to what extent this liberal bias leaks into the Hollywood product....
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Vol. 15, No. 2, Summer

The Presence and Portrayal of Social Groups on Prime-Time Television
This paper describes a content analysis of the presence and portrayal of age, sex and ethnic groups in all prime-time dramas and comedies from the major networks in 1999. Older adult, child, female, and Latino characters were underrepresented, whereas...
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Beliefs about Arguing: A Comparison of Public Issue and Personal Issue Arguments
Arguments occurring in interpersonal relationships can be divided into two types: public issue arguments and personal issue arguments. This study utilizes five beliefs about arguing delineated by Rancer, Kosberg, and Baukus (1992) to examine the...
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Perceived Aggressive Instructor Communication and Student State Motivation, Learning, and Satisfaction
This study examined the relationship between perceived instructor aggressiveness (i.e., argumentativeness, verbal aggressiveness) and student outcomes (i.e., state motivation, affective learning, cognitive learning, satisfaction). Participants were...
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The Influence of Self-Construals, Family and Teacher Communication Patterns on Communication Apprehension among College Students in Taiwan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-construals, family and teacher communication patterns, and communication apprehension (CA) among college students in Taiwan. This study surveyed 203 students who were enrolled...
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Perceptions of Intercultural Interaction and Communication Satisfaction: A Study on Initial Encounters
This project explored perceptions of intercultural interactions. Data were collected from U.S. undergraduate students shortly after they had a face-to-face, one-on-one conversation with an international student. A 15-item instrument was used to...
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Vol. 15, No. 1, Winter

Introduction to the Special Issue: Psychological Mediators of Sex Differences in Emotional Support
Emotional support is a central feature of personal relationships. Considerable research has documented reliable (if not always large) sex differences in several features of emotional support communication. Thus far, however, little research has been...
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How Gender and Cognitive Complexity Influence the Provision of Emotional Support: A Study of Indirect Effects
The current study examined the extent to which cognitive complexity--a well known predictor of message behavior--mediated sex differences in the production of person-centered comforting messages. Two hundred and eight students (102 men and 106 women)...
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Sex Differences in the Provision of Skillful Emotional Support: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy
This study focuses on associations between sex, self-efficacy in the domain of emotional support, and the skillfulness (person centeredness) of emotional support messages. In particular, it examines whether self-efficacy mediates the effect of sex...
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Explaining Sex Differences in the Evaluation of Comforting Messages: The Mediating Role of Interaction Goals
The current study hypothesized that sex differences in evaluations of comforting messages could be accounted for in terms of the extent to which people indicated they would pursue affectively oriented versus instrumentally oriented goals in support...
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Explaining Sex Differences in Interaction Goals in Support Situations: Some Mediating Effects of Expressivity and Instrumentality
The current study examined the extent to which personality orientations such as expressiveness and instrumentality mediate the effects of sex on goal orientations in support situations. Participants (N = 184; 89 males and 95 females) completed a questionnaire...
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Sex, Communication Values, and Cultural Values: Individualism-Collectivism as a Mediator of Sex Differences in Communication Values in Two Cultures
In an effort to understand how socialization shapes value orientations, the current study examined the mediating role of individualism-collectivism on the connection between sex and communication values in two cultures, American and Chinese. Participants...
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Psychological Mediators of Sex Differences in Emotional Support: A Reflection on the Mosaic
* The papers in this issue begin to answer some questions about factors that help to explain sex differences in emotional support processes. More important than the tentative answers these papers provide are the enduring questions they pose. In particular,...
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