Papers on Language & Literature

Literary history, theory, and interpretation.

Articles from Vol. 33, No. 3, Summer

Madeline, Mermaids, and Medusas in "The Eve of St. Agnes."
While recent scholarly interest in Keats has focused on gender issues in increasingly complex ways,(1) Keats's ambiguous depiction of Madeline in "The Eve of St. Agnes" has not attracted the attention it deserves. Commenting that Keats's characterization...
That I Might Hear Thee Call Great Caesar "Ass Unpolicied."
Near the end of Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen apostrophizes the deadly asp which she takes to her bosom: "O, couldst thou speak, / That I might hear thee call great Caesar ass / Unpolicied!" (5.2.300-02).(1) Cleopatra only claiming...
"The Awe-Creating Presence of the Deity": Some Religious Sources for Charles Brockden Brown's 'Wieland.'
A substantial body of criticism has grown up around Charles Brockden Brown's 1798 metaphysical romance Wieland, or the Transformation: An American Tale. Yet absent in the abundant interpretations of Wieland is much discussion of Brown's religious influences,...
"The Gallery of Memory": The Pictorial in 'Jane Eyre.'
Jane Eyre describes her first encounter with Rochester as an event of "no moment." Her act of kindness in helping the fallen man to his horse is merely an "active thing," significant only because it provides a welcome change to an otherwise "monotonous...
Unraveling Misogyny and Forging the New Self: Mother, Lover, and Storyteller in 'The Chaneysville Incident.'
When David Bradley's The Chaneysville Incident appeared in 1981, it received mostly favorable reviews, became a Book-of-the-month Club selection, and won its author a Faulkner/ PEN award. While many critics focus on the novel's treatment of history,...
White Trash, Low Class, and No Class at All: Perverse Portraits of Phallic Power in Flannery O'Connor's 'Wise Blood.'
Renowned for her characterizations of guilt-ridden and often violent "sinners," Flannery O'Connor has carefully painted ambiguous portraits of the poor Southern refuge, generally referred to as low class or as poor "white trash." This common class of...