Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis

Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis is a magazine specializing in Management topics.

Articles

Vol. 30-31, Annual

Sustainable Resource Management: Reality or Illusion? Introduction and Summary
Humanity's conceptualization of the global environment has changed radically in the four decades since the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. In many respects, there has been a fundamental transformation within the sciences, social sciences...
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The Challenge of the 21st Century: Setting the Real Bottom Line
THE ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT This year is the 40th anniversary of the publication of a book that for many people--certainly for me--was one of the most influential and important works of the 20th century. In 1962, Rachel Carson published Silent...
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Is Humanity Fatally Successful?
A framing premise of this paper is that the sustainability dilemma is not merely an ecological or technical or economic crisis as is usually assumed, but rather it is a crisis rooted in fundamental human nature. More specifically, it is a crisis...
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Reconciling Global Warming and Increasing Energy Demand
INTRODUCTION Economic activity and energy use are closely coupled. Today the yearly increase in economic activity is larger than the totality of world economic activity of 200 years ago; the population is huge compared to then and will continue...
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If Sustainability Is Expensive, What Roles for Business and Government? A Case Study of GHG Reduction Policy in Canada
INTRODUCTION Much has been said and written about a new business ethic of sustainability in which corporations voluntarily assume responsibility for shifting our economy to a trajectory that has lower environmental impacts and less environmental...
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Global Consumption from the Perspective of Population Health
Can wealthy societies maintain their health status while consuming less of the world's "photosynthetic resources"? This may seem like an esoteric question, yet Canada has recently ratified the Kyoto Accord. In order to meet its commitments under...
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Fisheries and Coastal Ecosystems: The Need for Integrated Management
INTRODUCTION How can it be that fisheries appear in trouble every time newspapers report on them? Coastal and marine fisheries have existed for a long time. Initially, people waded along the shore gathering shells and harpooned whatever marine...
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Oceanography in the Service of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION This paper first provides a short review of the chronic problems in fisheries and fisheries science. It then outlines a different approach to these problems by using examples from my own work. The paper briefly describes the large-scale...
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Fatal Harvest: Old and New Dimensions of the Ecological Tragedy of Modern Agriculture
INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY Agriculture implies the simplification of nature's biodiversity and reaches an extreme form in crop monoculture. The end result is the production of an artificial ecosystem requiring constant human intervention....
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Safe Drinking Water-A Local Example of a Global Challenge
INTRODUCTION Over the past 20 years water demands have steadily increased and the controversies and conflicts over drinking water are now a foremost concern of the public. The rapid shift by urban consumers towards the consumption of bottled...
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The Myth, Reality & Social Process of Sustainable Forest Management
INTRODUCTION The management of forests is not only contentious, but also complex. Forest ecology is dynamic and dependent on patterns of unpredictable natural disturbance. Market valuation of forest benefits is only partial, and the values that...
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Sustainability: A Focus on Forests and Forestry
INTRODUCTION Occam's razor: "Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate" [William of Occam (1284-1347), an English philosopher and theologian] Occam's razor is the basis for the law of parsimony and the rule of simplicity: do not posit...
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Social Marginalization of Forestry Communities in Sustainability Debates
INTRODUCTION The intention of those who defend old growth or denounce overgrazing is not to denounce hard physical work, but that is, in effect, what the articles [in High Country News] do. There are few articles or letters denouncing university...
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Canadian Law as a Mechanism for the Implementation of Sustainable Development: An Introduction
INTRODUCTION Although the term "sustainable development" has been defined in numerous ways, (1) the concept is rooted primarily in the concern for ensuring intergenerational equity. Simply stated, the goal of sustainable development, as defined...
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Managing Resources in the Global Commons
This paper addresses a series of fundamental issues relating to the governance of common-pool resources at multiple scales. Perhaps the most important question is whether the "tragedy of the commons," as first articulated in Hardin's 1968 Science...
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Mid-Course Correction: Toward a Sustainable Enterprise
I. THE SHAPE OF THE NEXT INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION On a Thursday in April 1996, I was in Boston on a panel speaking to 500 people. The subject was "Planning for Tomorrow," and the panel was about technology's role and impact on the strategic decisions...
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Sustainability in Historical Perspective: Canada's Conserver Society Studies Revisited
INTRODUCTION In the late 1970s, an extraordinary research effort was undertaken to map out what a future "Conserver Society" might look like in Canada. Two organizations were instrumental in this effort: the Science Council of Canada and GAMMA,...
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Annual

Bringing Business on Board: Sustainable Development and the B-School Curriculum
SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THIS VOLUME The goal of achieving sustainable development is arguably the greatest challenge mankind has ever faced, requiring a concerted joint effort among consumers, business and government. It can be argued that if sustainable...
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Is Humanity Suicidal?
Imagine that on an icy moon of Jupiter -- say, Ganymede -- the space station of an alien civilization is concealed. For millions of years its scientists have closely watched the earth. Because their law prevents settlement on a living planet, they...
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For the Common Good
Words ought to be a little wild, for they are the assault of thoughts upon the unthinking. - John Maynard Keynes THE WILD FACTS In our time, it is the facts themselves that are more than a little wild and that constitute an assault on unthinking...
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The Development of an Ecological Economics
HISTORICAL ROOTS AND MOTIVATIONS Ecology and economics have developed as separate disciplines throughout their recent histories in the 20th century. While each has addressed the way in which living systems self-organize to enable individuals and...
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Ecological Integrity and Material Growth: Irreconcilable Conflict?
INTRODUCTION AND ANALYTIC FRAMEWORK Many ecologists, and ordinary citizens who simply love nature, see the loss of biodiversity and the threat to ecosystems integrity as one of the most pressing problems confronting humankind today. Maintaining...
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Measuring Genuine Progress
There is a remarkable consensus that crosses all political divisions on the fundamental principles of a decent society and on the benchmarks that would signify genuine progress. We all want to live in a peaceful and safe society without crime. We all...
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A Road Map for Natural Capitalism
On September 16, 1991, a small group of scientists was sealed inside Biosphere II, a glittering 3.2-acre glass and metal dome in Oracle, Arizona. Two years later, when the radical attempt to replicate the earth's main ecosystems in miniature ended,...
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Graduate Learning for Business and Sustainability
The task for business schools is to engage young leaders and give them a long-term vision of success that includes social responsibility. - William Clay Ford, Chairman, Ford Motor Company, 1999 I hope that all involved in the education of today's...
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Sustainability and Finance: Teaching the Real Value of Good Corporate Stewardship
Corporations are not driven to sustainable development by an overwhelming desire to be altruistic, but rather by their fiduciary responsibility to create shareholder value. In other words, sustainable development is good business. - Brian Schofield...
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A Quantitative Approach to Strategic Environmental Risk Management
INTRODUCTION The financial performance of modern business is increasingly affected by the costs and opportunities presented by environmental issues. Regulations, materials and energy prices, consumer demands, and the development of new markets may...
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Green and Competitive: Ending the Stalemate
The need for regulation to protect the environment gets widespread but grudging acceptance: widespread because everyone wants a livable planet, grudging because of the lingering belief that environmental regulations erode competitiveness. The prevailing...
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Sustainable Development Leadership in Three Conexts: Managing for Global Competitiveness
INTRODUCTION Managers in many industries are coming to the realisation that in order to remain competitive in the rapidly changing world economy they must learn to think globally. In order to become more competitive through striving to achieve international...
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Shades of Green: Cognitive Framing and the Dynamics of Corporate Environmental Response
INTRODUCTION Degradation of the natural environment continues at a pace beyond that which the planet can sustain. Governments have historically attempted to curtail environmental degradation using regulation and economic instruments, but such interventions...
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Win-Win Transportation Management Strategies: Cooperation for Economic, Social and Environmental Benefits
INTRODUCTION Environmental protection, social equity and community livability are often considered to conflict with economic goals. Critics often argue that policies to protect the environment and achieve social objectives reduce economic productivity....
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Marketing Mix Design-for-Environment (Dfe): A Systems Approach
INTRODUCTION Sustainability can be visualized as a state in which the use of resources in consumption does not pollute and undermine the functioning of basic life-support ecosystems. To limit unfavorable ecosystem impacts and move towards sustainability,...
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Eco-Accounting: How Industrial Ecology Can Pay Double Dividendes for Business
THE PROBLEM Human population growth and consumption now place unprecedented demands on the environment. Faced with these challenges, the Brundtland Commission recognised that the only way we would be able to continue to meet human needs was "by...
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Corridors of Green and Gold: Impact of Riparian Suburban Greenways on Property Values
The open space system like housing, transportation, education and economic development, like air, water and light is a fundamental building block of modern urban life, a physical, social, economic, and human necessity, day in, day out, year after year....
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Sustainable Development: In Search of a Legal Rule
THE QUESTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED Should sustainable development be a domestic legal rule? What role could it play? What would it mean? Before considering these questions, I will briefly describe their legal context. THE LEGAL CONTEXT The emergence...
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The Journey toward Sustainable Energy Development-The Experience of Suncor Energy
The roots of Suncor Energy's enterprise as an innovative developer of hydrocarbon energy go back many years. In the late 1890s the Canadian government sponsored investigations of northern Alberta's Athabasca "tar sands" as a potential source of petroleum....
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Ikea: "Nothing Is Impossible"
Sustainability is the key word for the future. Our ambition is to work step by carefully thought-out step, and with great respect, towards a business based on sound ecological principles. It is not enough to be friendly toward the environment -- we...
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By-Product Synergy: A Case Study of Tampico, Mexico
INTRODUCTION In October 1997, the Business Council for Sustainable Development - Gulf of Mexico (BCSD-GM) launched a demonstration By-Product Synergy project in Tampico, Mexico with a group of 21 local industries. The goal was to promote joint commercial...
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Chemical Industry Integration
INTRODUCTION Clustering of chemical plants to maximize interchange of feedstocks and utilities has long been a practice. However, similar integration amongst most other industries has been slow in development. While we consider only Canadian examples...
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Doing Sustainability - the Ecos Corporation Story
This is the case history of the evolution of Ecos Corporation, a business strategy consultancy that shapes its advice based on principles of sustainability. The fast-growing Ecos practice, based in Sydney, Australia, aims to make its clients more profitable...
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What Does Sustainable Development Mean for a Forest Products Company?
Canfor is an integrated producer of forest products headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We produce solid wood from the bole of the tree, engineered wood and panels, and pulp and paper products from the residual materials. We have...
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What I Saw of the Revolution:reflections of a Corporate Environmental Manager in the 1990's B.C. Coastal Forest Industry
INTRODUCTION British Columbia is on the cutting edge globally when it comes to new approaches to the changing relationship between natural resources, the environment and people. You can tell it's the cutting edge by all the blood on it. And, as...
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Iisaak: A New Economic Model for Conservation-Based Forestry in Coastal Old Growth Forests, B.C
BACKGROUND During the 1970's public concern began to build regarding industrial forestry operations on western Vancouver Island. In 1979, the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council (NTC) was asked by its member First Nations to address the declining employment...
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Patagonia, Inc
At Patagonia, Inc., headquartered in Ventura, California, catering to Alpine and other outdoor enthusiasts means much more than just designing and selling the highest-quality outerwear. It means making a deep commitment to pressing environmental and...
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Interface, Inc
According to Ray Anderson, CEO of Atlanta-based Interface, Inc., a leading maker' of commercial carpet, carpet tile, and other interior furnishings, responsible management of Earth's resources is a question of business survival. In Anderson's words,...
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The Cost of Crime in Nova Scotia
Crime conservatively cost Nova Scotians more than half a billion dollars in economic losses to victims; public spending on police, courts and prisons; and private spending on crime prevention in 1997 (Table 1). This amounts to nearly $600 for every...
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Gpl: Alberta's Sustainability Trends
WHAT IS THE GPI ACCOUNTING PROJECT? The GPI (Genuine Progress Indicators) accounting project is a pioneering research effort to develop a new system for measuring the total well-being and sustainability of nations or states. This project, led by...
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Waste to Profits: The Case of Consolidated Mining and Smelting Ltd
The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company (renamed Cominco in 1966) was formed in 1906 and four years later bought the Sullivan Mine, the world's largest silver-lead-zinc ore body, located at Kimberley in the Southeast corner of British Columbia....
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Business and Sustainable Development in South East Asia
INTRODUCTION: CRISIS AND NEW CONTEXTS Businesses face a new context in opportunities and regulations in South East Asia. Many indicators suggest that the crisis that affected many counties in the region since mid 1997 has bottomed out. Leaders of...
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Emissions Trading: U.S. Experience Implementing Multi-State Cap and Trade Programs
INTRODUCTION In order to reduce the cost of compliance with air pollution reduction requirements, several flexibility mechanisms were introduced in the United States in the late 1970's. Referred to generally as emissions trading, they included emissions...
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Green Tax Reforms in Oecd Countries: An Overview
The last decade witnessed a large increase in the use of economic instruments to protect the environment in OECD countries, with a growing emphasis on tax instruments, in particular in the context of "green tax reforms". (Figure 1) This tendency is...
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The Challenge of Sustainable Development in Mexico
INTRODUCTION Mexico is among the most developed of all the Latin American nations. With a total population of 95.9 million by mid-1998 [1] and GNP per capita of $3,970 USD, it belongs to the upper-middle income range of Latin American countries....
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Vol. 24-26, Annual

Introduction
Enlighten the people generally, and tyranny and oppression of body and mind will vanish like evil spirits at the dawn of day. - Thomas Jefferson, 1816 I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society but the people themselves;...
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Making Words/finding Stories
When I was contacted first to come to Vancouver for this talk, I was told that they would like a title. Now, this was many, many months ago, and so I rather desperately picked a title called "Making Words / Finding Stories," thinking that if I was...
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Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship
We're going to be talking about dogs and people and their relationship to each other. During the course of this I will give you a little bit of information about why we love dogs and the personalities of people who pick particular breeds of dogs. ...
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The Importance of Story: The Hunger for Personal Narrative
I'm writing my memoir for Penguin. I'm almost 60: that sounds like the right time to be writing a memoir. But it is an odd time for me. Being 60 is at the other end of the rainbow. I'm not complaining, because at that end you begin to understand...
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Contradictions of Liberation: Truth, Justice and Reconciliation in South Africa
I. THE PURCHASED REVOLUTION There are not many cases where a privileged ethnic minority has negotiated itself out of power, although it was capable of continuing to rule, albeit with rising costs. Even more rare seem situations where a dominant...
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Globalization and Its Discontents
Let me start with a definition of globalization. Political economists would likely tell us that globalization describes a world economic order in which capital, trade, production and information flow to their logical destinations, without being artificially...
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Immigration: What the U.S. Can Learn from Canada
The question "Can the United States still afford to be a nation of immigrants?" implies a premise: that historically the United States has well afforded to be a nation of immigrants - indeed, has benefited handsomely from its good fortune as an immigrant...
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What Are Good Schools and Why Are They So Hard to Get?
I'm very pleased to have been invited to speak at The Vancouver Institute and to honour the fortieth anniversary of the University of British Columbia's Faculty of Education. I'm still shocked that so many people would come out on a Saturday night....
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Good News, Bad News: Power in Canadian Media and Politics
It is never anything but inspiring to drift down from over the mountains into the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, to see the ocean come into view with Vancouver set against the water and the peaks, the ebullient greenery of the landscape a balm...
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Reforming the Tax and Welfare System
INTRODUCTION I am going to focus my talk on the research we do at the Institute for Fiscal Studies. What I want to discuss is work on reforming the tax and benefit system. This is an important area of work at the Institute and I want to look at...
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Tricks of the Tobacco Trade
Tobacco is an inflammatory issue. I recently saw an editorial in a Toronto paper that described the health community pressing for tobacco control as "nico-nazis." On the other side of the fence, I've seen advocates describing the tobacco industry as...
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How to Get Rid of Nuclear Weapons
The Vancouver Institute is famous in the world for bringing together both experts and the general public to discuss problems of great importance to all of us. The subject of my talk this evening, I think, is also of great importance to everybody. The...
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From the Ground Up: Designing and Building a New City in China
I'm going to start with a short video clip that the CBC recently made with me in China. They came this fall with Joyce Resin and Patty Moore from the program called Alive. Alive, as you know, is a television program that runs every week and basically...
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Democracy in Peril
As a social democrat in terms of my values and inclinations, I believe that our current democracy is in peril. We are facing five to ten years of difficulty in terms of our political system for four reasons: 1) The "demonization" of politicians....
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Brainpower: The New Natural Resource
It truly is an honour and a privilege to be able to address the Institute, and to have an opportunity to share with my new city and community my views on the value of "brainpower" to our future economic, social and cultural development. While the...
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Canada: Can We Survive?
Seventeen years ago I spoke to the Vancouver Institute on the then view of our never ending constitutional crisis - I talked on the Pepin-Robarts Report. Two years ago when I was President of the Institute, Angus Reid spoke to the Institute pretty...
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Democratization: Questions for the Year 2000
It is a very great honour to have been invited to The Vancouver Institute. I am sure that most of your speakers must comment on the remarkable fact that Vancouver is a city where, on a Saturday evening, we can find a huge audience like this for a lecture...
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Universities after a Millenium: Whither or Wither?
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the first university was established in 859 in Fez, Morocco; the next one in Bologna, in 1000. If we include the ancient Greek philosophical schools as forerunners to universities, this is surely the oldest...
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The Peace Process in Ireland
I would like to bring you up to date about Ireland and the peace process and how Ireland is faring in the new and large family of the European Union. It is true that we have had centuries of conflict in Ireland. It is true that in every decade of this...
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Dealing with the Challenge of Globalization: The Long View
Theory Needs History Two important features of today's international economy characterized the late 19th century as well. First, the earlier period was one of rapid globalization: capital and labor flowed across national frontiers in unprecedented...
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What's a Nice Country like Us Doing in a Place like This?
I do a great deal of travelling and speaking outside of Canada - one of the things that happens when politicians leave office. I commented that some people choose retirement and some people reach retirement age and others have retirement thrust upon...
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Healthy, Wealthy and Cunning? Profit and Loss from Health Care Reform
Those of you who heard last week's lecture by Dr. Fraser Mustard, the President of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, will have some idea of the breadth and eclecticism of CIAR research programs. Tonight's address will likewise draw on,...
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Prosperity or Decline: Canada's Choice
My presentation tonight will try to integrate three themes: these are economic growth and prosperity, human development, and health and well-being. Let me begin with health. Early in my education as a medical student in the late 1940's, our professor...
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The Canadian Revolution: From Deference to Defiance 1985-1995
What is a Canadian Revolution? It sounds like an oxymoron, like jumbo shrimp or Ottawa nightlife, but it's not. Because when you really study revolutions, the stereotype of revolutions - which is tanks in the city square or a guillotine, or whichever...
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The Crisis in Canadian Fisheries
This paper will provide an academic perspective on the status and future of Canadian fisheries. It tries to draw some lessons about what the people of Canada will probably have to do if we want to maintain those precious resources. Fish touch all of...
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Shaping Canada's Foreign Policy: 1968-84
I must begin by saying how pleased I am to have been given the honour of speaking from this distinguished platform for a third time. The occasion this evening is the recent publication of the volume of Canadian foreign policy written by Pierre Trudeau...
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Growth without Air Pollution: Vancouver and Elsewhere
There are certain human failings that we all share (and are prepared to confess to in moments of candour). One of these is an inherent laziness when we know that we should take steps to prevent things from happening - crisis response often seems to...
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Reflections on the United States
It is an observable irony of American life that so many of the country's historical heroes - men and women after whom cities have been named and monuments erected - contributed in the sphere of government, and yet Americans have always been decidedly...
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Reforming Social Policy: Can the Federal Government Deliver?
I. Introduction The topic of this talk is one that is of considerable interest to the community of Canadians - the reform of social policy and the role of the federal government in that process. Interest in it is reflected in a recent survey reported...
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Is Conservation a Lost Cause? from B.C. to Africa
Serengeti: A World Heritage The single most important problem facing the world today for the future survival of mankind is the loss of biodiversity. Historically, conservation has protected biodiversity by setting up protected areas. UNESCO established...
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