Journal of Ecumenical Studies

Academic journal focuses on religious issues and cross-cultural understanding.

Articles from Vol. 46, No. 4, Fall

"Almost Indescribable and Unbelievable": The Garrett Report and the Future of Jewish Refugee Immigration to Australia in 1939
On December 1, 1938, the Australian federal government announced that it was reassessing the manner in which Jewish refugees could enter Australia, stating that it was introducing a new policy that would admit 15,000 refugees over the course of the...
A Passionate Commitment-A Tribute to Franklin Littell
Franklin Littell and I first became acquainted in the late 1960's, when I had just begun my teaching career. He had already established himself as a Christian leader and educator and was beginning his work of challenging both the Christian churches...
Business and Corporate Ethics after Auschwitz
The Holocaust, if not the nadir of professional ethics, was surely one of its darkest days. No profession escaped guilt from its practices during that period. In medicine, German physicians clearly had complicity or direct involvement with sterilization...
Delayed Justice: Forced and Slave Labor Restitution after the Holocaust
The magnitude of the Holocaust created suffering that can never be rectified. Decades later, the search for some form of justice still eludes many. The crimes of the Holocaust were vast. The Nazis were not only guilty of the murder of 11,000,000 men,...
Epilogue
We are an orphaned generation. We all know that survivors are dying, giants among men and women; we can name the names and recite the achievements. As students of the Holocaust, we must now mark the passing of the first generation of scholars, those...
Faith and Freedom: Remembering Franklin H. Littell
The beloved founder of this annual conference was first and foremost a historian; both in memory of and in tribute to him, I wish to make one small but important correction to the historical record of this four-decade-long gathering. The title of this...
Franklin Hamlin Littell: Forty Years in the Wilderness and Beyond
It is very difficult for me to speak to you after seeing Pierre Sauvage's magnificently well-done documentary on Franklin H. Littell. What are my words in comparison to the original voice? Hubert Locke was addressed in our last meeting yesterday by...
Franklin H. Littell: After 40 Years in the Wilderness-The Unfinished Agenda
A critical idea that Franklin Littell proposed well before most seriously considered it--certainly long before governments, the United Nations, and most scholars--was his Genocide Early Warning System. It was an issue and a concept about which he was...
Franklin H. Littell: After Forty Years in the Wilderness, the Unfinished Agenda
I want to speak about my generation, this second generation, as well as the transition to the third generation. I am mindful that we are commemorating the fortieth anniversary of the Scholars' Conference. Forty years is a biblical generation. We are...
Franklin H. Littell-In Memoriam
I first met Franklin Littell at Wayne State University in Detroit, in 1970, at one of the first conferences on the Holocaust that was held anywhere. It had the title, "The German Church Struggle and the Holocaust" and was organized by Hubert G. Locke...
Franklin H. Littell's and Israel W. Charny's Early Warning Systems
Introduction In her lead editorial for the "Special Issue on Early Warning on Refugee Migration," of Refuge: Canada's Periodical on Refugees, Dr. Susanne Schmeidl of the Centre for Refugee Studies at York University, Toronto, wrote: This...
Franklin Littell: Scholar, Gentleman, and Passionate Provocateur
Everything we say here attests how fiercely our dear colleague Franklin Littell fought to make this world a better place. He applied pen and tongue with warlike energy to change minds, expose lies, and propose humane alternatives. He spoke truth not...
God Is Faithful to God's People: The New Theology of Israel in Contemporary German Protestantism
In November, 1990, at a conference at the Protestant Academy of Bad Boll, Rolf Rendtorff, chairperson of the Study Commission "Church and Judaism" of the Evangelical Church in Germany, assessed the relations of Christians and Jews in Germany following...
Hermann Maas and Justice after the Shoah
Pastor Hermann Maas (1877-1970) of Heidelberg's Holy Spirit Church (Heiliggeistkirche) stood closer to the Jewish community of his city than any other German clergyperson of whom we have record. Since 1903, when he sat in as an observer at the Sixth...
In Denial: American Universities' Response to the Third Reich, Past and Present
During the 1930's, America's leading colleges and universities forged friendly ties with thoroughly Nazified universities in Germany. By doing so, they helped enhance the Hitler regime's prestige in the West. Such major American universities as Harvard,...
In Memoriam: Franklin H. Littell, 1917-2009
On July 23, 1998, Yehuda Bauer interviewed his friend Franklin Littell at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, where the two scholars frequently led seminars on the Holocaust. The interview provides an overview of Littell's primary concerns in Holocaust studies...
In Praise of Franklin Littell
I first met Franklin Littell in the late 1960's at the annual meetings of the American Academy of Religion, but I really came to know and appreciate him when he and Hubert Locke invited me to participate in what was then called the Annual Scholars'...
Introduction
The papers in this special issue of the Journal of Ecumenical Studies have been assembled in honor of the fortieth anniversary of the Annual Scholars' Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches (A.S.C.). The collection is dedicated to the memory...
Iterations of Babi Yar
Like the sound of "Auschwitz," "Bosnia," and "Rwanda," the place-name "Babi Yar" cracks like a gunshot and disturbs the heart. How that name and place became resonant in the public consciousness is owed as much to artistic rendering as to the uncovering...
Jewish Women Partisans in Belarus
They are strong when they think they have no more energy. Against all odds they persevere in loving, dreaming, and battling for a better world. --Clarissa Pinkola Estes, Women Who Run with the Wolves In spite of the fact that leaders of Soviet...
Journalism Ethics after Auschwitz
There is one fundamental way in which journalism changed after Auschwitz: Before the Holocaust we did not have a category for genocide, and after it we did--and do. In taking account of the transformation, I did not directly address the title of the...
Legal Ethics after Auschwitz: The Case against SNCF
It is an honor to be among those who speak about the unspeakable; who try to make sense of history in a world that would rather forget the past. Among those that would rather forget are the French, including the French National Railroad, SNCF. Choices...
Levinas and the Other: Provider-Patient Relationships and the Response of U.S. Nursing
Over the past ten to fifteen years, nursing research has been documenting a range of nursing roles in the Holocaust--among not only resisters but also bystanders, collaborators, perpetrators, and victims. This essay asks what might lie behind nurses'...
Medical Ethics after Auschwitz
I am inspired by Franklin Littell's accomplishments of the past forty years and, in particular, by his question about the Holocaust, "Where were you?" As a physician, I can say that we were right there. The medical professions, including nursing, bioscience,...
More Than Credibility: Building on the Legacy of Franklin H. Littell
Like many others, my initial introduction to Franklin Littell came by way of his 1975 publication, The Crucifixion of the Jews. I had purchased a copy at a Cokesbury Bookstore in Nashville, TN, in June, 1976, in preparation for a summer work venture...
Our Forty-Year Journey to Messiah College: A Tribute to Franklin H. Littell
I have come to pay tribute to Franklin H. Littell--a man under whom I never studied in a formal sense but who became my teacher in the most profound and far-reaching way. I begin with two short stories. First, in 2009, the University of Illinois...
Our Jewish Brethren: Christian Responses to Kristallnacht in Canadian Mass Media
The discussion of Canadian responses to the Holocaust has unfolded largely in response to the work of Irving Abella and Harold Troper. In their study, None Is Too Many." Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948, they argued that "although some organizations...
Preface
It is doubtful that Franklin Littell--visionary though he was--anticipated that the meeting of several dozen university faculty and clergy over which he presided at Wayne State University in the Spring of 1970 would become an annual gathering of hundreds...
Reflections on Franklin Littell: In Memoriam
Nearly thirty years ago, I met a remarkable man who was visiting at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where I was a beginning graduate student. His name was Franklin Littell, and I had never encountered anyone like him. I had grown up in an Orthodox...
The Holocaust and "Salvation"?
If one looks at the questions raised by the horror of the Holocaust, the "salvation"--in traditional terms, what happens to humans after death--of the 6,000,000 murdered Jews was not one of them. Indeed, the after-grave rate of the murderers was not...
The Holocaust Experience in Western Poland
We have a generalized image in our heads from movies, TV shows, novels, and survivor testimony of the Holocaust experience. We are familiar with scenes from the Umschlagplatz in the Warsaw ghetto, the "Crystal Night" pogrom in Berlin, selection at...
The View from Rome: Contextualizing the Vatican's Response to Reichskristallnacht
In February, 2003, in an unprecedented break with Vatican Secret Archives (1) policy, the Holy See opened those records pertaining to the Munich and Berlin nunciatures (Vatican diplomatic headquarters) for the period 1922-1939. During these years,...
The Warsaw Ghetto's Underground Medical School
The only certainty about the Warsaw ghetto's medical school is that it existed at all, yet its reality is underscored by the fact that the few students who survived the ghetto's destruction were given full academic credit for what they had learned...