The Middle East Journal

The Middle East Institute has published The Middle East Journal quarterly since 1947. The Journal provides original and objective research and analysis, as well as source material, on the area from Morocco to Pakistan and including Central Asia. The Journal provides the background necessary for an understanding and appreciation of the region's political and economic development, cultural heritage, ethnic and religious diversity. Become a member and receive a complimentary individual subscription. Or subscribe to the MEJ for your institution. Each issue of The Middle East Journal includes: * Articles written by renowned scholars, foreign policy analysts and area experts. Each article offers unique insights invaluable to the scholar and lay reader alike. * A Chronology maintained continuously since 1947. Organized by subject and country, the chronology is a reference source without rival. * Book Reviews that are among the most respected, comprehensive, and up-to-date in the field of Middle Eastern studies. Full-length reviews, as well as annotations of recent publications, permit the serious reader to keep abreast of current literature on the area. Every subscriber to the Journal receives complimentary access to the electronic version of the Journal. This fully searchable, downloadable version includes access back through 2004

Articles from Vol. 52, No. 1, Winter

American Aid to Egypt in the 1950s: From Hope to Hostility
This article provides insights into worsening US-Egyptian relations in the mid1950s from the perspective of the Egyptian foreign ministry. It portrays the frustrations Egyptians experienced in their efforts to win large-scale US assistance, and it offers...
Arab-Israeli Conflict-Jewish-Transjordanian Relations 1921-1948
Jewish-Transjordanian Relations 19211948, by Yoav Gelber. London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1997. x + 289 pages. Gloss. to p. 306. Bibl. to p. 313. Index to p. 320. $49.50 cloth; $25 paper. Reviewed by John Creed Bit by bit we are learning more about...
Armenia- Faith in History: Armenians Rebuilding Community
Faith in History: Armenians Rebuilding Community, by Susan Paul Pattie. Washington, DC and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997. xiv + 244 pages. Appends. to p. 250. Notes to p. 265. Bibl. to p. 275. Index to p. 282. $49. Susan Pattie's Faith...
Biography-George Ball: Behind the Scenes in U.S. Foreign Policy
George Ball: Behind the Scenes in U.S. Foreign Policy, by James A. Bill. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997. xvii + 232 pages. Notes to p. 260. Bibl. to p. 263. Index to p. 274. $30. James A. Bill's book has three parts. Part one describes...
Biography-Libya's Qaddafi: The Politics of Contradiction
Libya's Qaddafi: The Politics of Contradiction, by Mansour O. El-Kikhia. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. viii + 150 pages. Appends. To p. 161. Notes to p. 179. Bibl. to p. 205. Index to p. 213. $49.95. Libya's Qaddafi is a comprehensive,...
Central Asia and the Caucasus-The Central Asian States: Discovering Independence
The Central Asian States: Discovering Independence, by Gregory Gleason. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997. xix + 186 pages. Chron. to p. 204. Bibl. to p. 209. About the Book and Author, p. 211. Index to p. 220. $70. Westview Press made a revealing decision...
Chronology: Afghanistan
1997 July 17: Islamabad radio reported clashes between Taliban forces and the forces of General Ahmad Mas`ud in the Takhan Province, in the northeast. [7/21 FBIS] July 19: Agence France Presse (AFP) reported that General Mas`ud's forces had captured...
Chronology: Algeria
1997 July 16: A court sentenced Rashid Misli, a former lawyer for the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), to three years' imprisonment for "speaking in favor of and encouraging terrorist groups." [7/18 FBIS] July 20: Groups of armed men attacked two towns...
Chronology: Arab-Israeli Conflict
1997 July 19: Palestinian National Authority (PNA) commander, in Nablus after Israel accused Colonel Jihad al-Mim, a police commander, in attacks against Jewish settler Israel accused him of organizing attacks against Jewish settlers. [7/22 FBIS] A Jordanian...
Chronology: Central Asia and Transcaucasia
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey 1997 July 19: Georgian president Eduard Shevardnadze visited US president Bill Clinton in Washington. Clinton indicated his desire for US involvement in the conflict over the breakaway...
Chronology: Cyprus
1997 July 18: The Greek Cypriot government rejected Turkish Cypriot president Rauf Denktas' proposal for creating special bicommunal police units to monitor the "Green Line" in cooperation with the United Nations. [7/21 FBIS] In New York, Greek Cypriot...
Chronology: Egypt
1997 July 23: A presidential decree cut import duties by five percent on all electrical appliances and manufactured goods, with the exception of cars. The decree also decreased tariffs on imported production inputs for items with at least 30 percent...
Chronology: Iran
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan 1997 July 20: A court imposed a $1,600 fine on Mahdi Nasiri, managing editor of the monthly Sobh, and banned the publication for one month, for publishing "insults, lies and disturbing...
Chronology: Iraq
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Iran, Jordan, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey 1997 July 20: Opposition radio, Voice of the Iraqi People, reported that an explosive charge went off near the presidential palace in al-Basra, resulting in an unspecified...
Chronology: Israel
See also, Arab-Israeli Conflict, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Palestinian Affairs, Jordan, Lebanon 1997 July 20: A Jerusalem district court sentenced Avigdor Askin to four months' imprisonment for violating anti-terrorist laws when he organized...
Chronology: Jordan
See also. Arab-Israeli Conflict. Regional Affairs, Israel 1997 July 21: Four political parties, the Jordanian People's Democratic Party, the Jordan Arab Constitutional Front, the National Action Front, and Al-Ansar, announced they would join the Muslim...
Chronology: Lebanon
1997 July 30: The United States lifted a decade-old ban restricting American travel to Lebanon. [7/31 NYT] July 31: The United Nations (UN) Security Council extended the mandate of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) for six months. [8/1 FBIS] Aug....
Chronology: Morrocco
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Western Sahara, Algeria 1997 July 25: The Socialist Union of Popular Forces (USFP) and the Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS) called for a two-round poll in the legislative elections. [7/28 FBIS] July 27: A new leftist...
Chronology: Pakistan
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Afghanistan 1997 July 22: Authorities recovered 400 Russian-made missiles and detonators from a truck near Sadda, in Lower Kurram. The truck was headed for Upper Kurram. [7/23 FBIS] July 23: The Civil Aviation...
Chronology: Palestinian Affairs
1997 July 17: Palestinian National Authority (PNA) president Yasir `Arafat appointed Fayiz Sha`ban Abu-Ramah attorney general. Abu-Ramah had been `Arafat's top legal advisor. [7/22 FBIS] July 29: Members of the PNA Legislative Council concluded an investigation...
Chronology: Petroleum Affairs
1997 July 23: An agreement was signed in Islamabad between Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Unocal of the United States, and Delta Oil of Saudi Arabia, for the creation of a gas pipeline by the year 2001 from Turkmenistan to Pakistan, passing through Afghanistan,...
Chronology: Regional Affairs
1997 July 17: In Istanbul, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan signed an agreement on railway transport cooperation. [7/18 FBIS] July 20: The Iranian News Agency (IRNA) reported that Iran and Kazakstan...
Chronology: Turkey
See also, Petroleum Affairs, Regional Affairs, Cyprus, Iraq, Pakistan 1997 July 17: Bangladesh and Turkey signed an agreement on defense industry cooperation. [7/18 FBIS] July 22: Turkey's parliament passed legislation to remove legal obstacles blocking...
Daring and Caution in Turkish Foreign Policy
This article outlines the main features of Turkey's new post-Cold War security environment, and assesses the role of historical legacies, institutional structures, and normative pressures-particularly the competing values of "daring" and "caution "-in...
Doria Shafik, Egyptian Feminist: A Woman Apart / the Mobilization of Muslim Women in Egypt
Doria Shafik, Egyptian Feminist: A Woman Apart, by Cynthia Nelson. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996. xxvi + 284 pages. Notes to p. 305. Bibl. to p. 310. Index to p. 322. $49.95. The Mobilization of Muslim Women in Egypt, by Ghada Hashem...
Iran-The Army and the Creation of the Pahlavi State in Iran: 1910-1926
The Army and the Creation of the Pahlavi State in Iran: 1910-1926, by Stephanie Cronin. New York and London: Tauris Academic Series, 1997. vii + 214 pages. Appends. to p. 258. Notes to p. 280. Bibl. to p. 287. Index to p. 296. $59.50. In this book, Stephanie...
Iraq-The Making of Iraq, 1900-1963: Capital, Power and Ideology / State-Making, Nation-Building and the Military: Iraq, 1941-1958
The Making of Iraq, 1900-1963: Capital, Power and Ideology, by Samira Haj. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997. viii + 150 pages. Notes to p. 196. Gloss. to p. 198. Bibl. to p. 209. Index to p. 215. $18.95 paper. State-Making, Nation-Building...
Israel-The Government and Politics of Israel
The Government and Politics of Israel, by Don Peretz and Gideon Doron. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press, 1997. 3rd ed. xii + 279 pages. Notes. to p. 281. Bibl. to p. 290. About the Book and Authors to p. 291. Index to p. 308. $65 cloth; $21 paper....
Language and Literature-The Thirsty Sword: Sirat Antar and the Arabic Popular Epic
The Thirsty Sword: Sirat `Antar and the Arabic Popular Epic, by Peter Heath. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1996. xx + 253 pages. Notes to p. 286. Bibl. to p. 314. Index to p. 324. $50. Ever since 1802, when Joseph von Hammer published his...
Lebanon-Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions
Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars and Global Extensions, by William Harris. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1997. viii + 326 pages. List of Maps, Figures and Tables to p. 328. Gloss. to p. 329. Notes to p. 344. Bibl. to p. 350. Index to p. 354, $39.95...
Lebanon-Hizb'Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis
Hizb'Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis, by Magnus Ranstorp. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997. xvi + 206 pages. Notes to p. 240. Bibl. to p. 248. Index to p. 257. $18.95. Reviewed by Giandomenico Picco This book addresses...
Libya-Libya: The Political Economy of Oil
Libya: The Political Economy of Oil, by Judith Gurney. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. xii + 225 pages. Appends. to p. 230. Bibl. to p. 238. Index to p. 244. $55. Despite the important role Libya has played in the events leading up to the first...
Modern History and Politics-Inside the Arab World
Inside the Arab World, by Michael Field. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. viii + 439 pages. Index. $27.50. Inside the Arab World by Michael Field is a journey by one of Europe's most informed journalists writing about the region. The book is...
Modern History and Politics-Le Defi Kurde, Ou le Reve Fou De L'independence
Le defi kurde, ou le reve fou de l'independance, by Chris Kutschera. Paris: Bayard Editions, 1997. 313 pages. Notes to p. 334. Index to p. 340. Gloss. to p. 348. Bibl. to p. 350. FF160 paper. With the majority of the Kurdish population divided among...
Omanibalancing: Oman Confronts an Uncertain Future
This article examines the internal and external politics of the Sultanate of Oman. The Omani leader, Sultan Qabus, is trying to balance a variety of threats to his country and his rule. His strategy of "Omanibalancing" (i.e., of balancing internal and...
Palestine-Building a Palestinian State: The Incomplete Revolution
Building a Palestinian State: The Incomplete Revolution, by Glenn E. Robinson. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1997. xiii + 200 pages. Notes to p. 221. Index to p. 228. $29.95 cloth; $14.95 paper. Building a Palestinian State...
Philosophy and Religion-Islamic Marriage and Divorce Laws of the Arab World
Islamic Marriage and Divorce Laws of the Arab World, by Dawoud Sudqi El Alami and Doreen Hinchcliffe. Cambridge, MA: Kluwer Law International, 1996. xvi + 272 pages. Index to page 279. $127. When the title of a book is as misleading as the title of this...
Philosophy and Religion-Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution
Shi'a Islam: From Religion to Revolution, by Heinz Halm. Tr. by Allison Brown. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1997. xii + 161 pages. Notes to p. 167. Bibl. to p. 170. Index to p. 176. $39.95 cloth; $16.95 paper. Reviewed by William Tucker Heinz...
Pre-20th Century-Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam
PRE-20TH CENTURY HISTORY Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis under Early Islam, by Steven M. Wasserstrom. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995. viii + 237 pages. Bibl. to p. 278. Index to p. 300. $45. Reviewed by Richard C....
Pre-2oth Century-Pilgrims and Sultans: The Haji under the Ottomans, 1517-1683
Pilgrims and Sultans: The Ha,jj under the Ottomans, 1517-1683, by Suraiya Faroqhi. London and New York: I.B. Tauris, 1996. xii + 190 pages. Notes to p. 213. Bibl. to p. 235. Index to p. 244. $24.50 paper. Pilgrims and Sultans is a comprehensive account...
Syria-Syrians: A Travelogue 1992-1994
Syrians: A Travelogue 1992-1994, by Laurence Deonna. Pueblo, CO: Passeggiata Press, 1996. x + 110 pages. $24 cloth; $14 paper. In the introduction to Syrians: A Travelogue 1992-1994, Laurence Deonna points out that her prose and photographs of Syrians...
The Middle East in the Twenty-First Century
This article looks at certain on-going developments in the Middle East that are likely to endure and that will influence the course of history in the region and beyond in the coming century. Such developments include demographic growth, the spread of...
Theocracy versus Democracy: Iran Considers Political Parties
Muhammad Khatami's upset victory in the 1997 presidential election in Iran was due to an unprecedented degree of popular support from Iranians, including many youths and women, who showed a clear desire for change. Many hoped that the system would open...